Statistical information Zimbabwe 1992Zimbabwe

Map of Zimbabwe | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Zimbabwe in the World
Zimbabwe in the World

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Zimbabwe - Introduction 1992
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Background: The UK annexed Southern Rhodesia from the South Africa Company in 1923. A 1961 constitution was formulated to keep whites in power. In 1965 the government unilaterally declared its independence but the UK did not recognize the act and demanded voting rights for the black African majority in the country (then called Rhodesia). UN sanctions and a guerrilla uprising finally led to free elections in 1979 and independence (as Zimbabwe) in 1980. Robert MUGABE the nation's first prime minister has been the country's only ruler (as president since 1987) and has dominated the country's political system since independence.


Zimbabwe - Geography 1992
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Location

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Area
Total: 390,580 km²
Land: 386,670 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than Montana

Land boundaries:
3,066 km total; Botswana 813 km, Mozambique 1,231 km,
South Africa 225 km, Zambia 797 km


Coastline: none - landlocked

Maritime claims: none - landlocked
Disputes: quadripoint with Botswana, Namibia, and Zambia is in disagreement

Climate:
tropical; moderated by altitude; rainy season (November to
March)


Terrain: mostly high plateau with higher central plateau (high veld; mountains in east

Elevation

Natural resources: coal, chromium ore, asbestos, gold, nickel, copper, iron ore, vanadium, lithium, tin, platinum group metals
Land use

Land use: arable land: 7%; permanent crops: NEGL%; meadows and pastures 12%; forest and woodland 62%; other 19%; includes irrigated NEGL%

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Zimbabwe - People 1992
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Population: 11,033,376 (July 1992), growth rate 2.9% (1992)

Nationality: noun - Zimbabwean(s; adjective - Zimbabwean

Ethnic groups: African 98% (Shona 71%, Ndebele 16%, other 11%; white 1%, mixed and Asian 1%

Languages: English (official; Shona, Sindebele

Religions:
syncretic (part Christian, part indigenous beliefs) 50%,
Christian 25%, indigenous beliefs 24%, a few Muslim


Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate: 40 births/1000 population (1992)

Death rate: 8 deaths/1000 population (1992)

Net migration rate: -3 migrants/1000 population (1992)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: recurring droughts; floods and severe storms are rare; deforestation; soil erosion; air and water pollution
Current issues note: landlocked

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 59 deaths/1000 live births (1992)

Life expectancy at birth: 60 years male, 64 years female (1992)

Total fertility rate: 5.4 children born/woman (1992)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: 67% (male 74%, female 60%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Zimbabwe - Government 1992
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Zimbabwe

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Harare

Administrative divisions:
8 provinces; Manicaland, Mashonaland Central,
Mashonaland East, Mashonaland West, Masvingo (Victoria), Matabeleland North,
Matabeleland South, Midlands


Dependent areas

Independence: 18 April 1980 (from UK; formerly Southern Rhodesia)

National holiday: Independence Day, 18 April (1980)

Constitution: 21 December 1979

Legal system: mixture of Roman-Dutch and English common law

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: universal at age 18
Executive President:
last held 28-30 March 1990 (next to be held NA
March 1996); results - Robert MUGABE 78.3%, Edgar TEKERE 21.7%

Parliament:
last held 28-30 March 1990 (next to be held NA March 1995); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (150 total, 120 elected)
ZANU-PF 117, ZUM 2, ZANU-S 1


Executive branch: executive president, 2 vice presidents, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation:
ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, FLS, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer),
ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, PCA, SADCC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation:
Counselor (Political Affairs), Head of
Chancery, Ambassador Stanislaus Garikai CHIGWEDERE; Chancery at 1608 New
Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,009; telephone (202) 332-7,100

US:
Ambassador Edward Gibson LANPHER; Embassy at 172 Herbert Chitapo
Avenue, Harare (mailing address is P. O. Box 3,340, Harare); telephone 263 (4) 794-521


Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Zimbabwe: seven equal horizontal bands of green, yellow, red, black, red, yellow, and green with a white equilateral triangle edged in black based on the hoist side; a yellow Zimbabwe bird is superimposed on a red five-pointed star in the center of the triangle

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Zimbabwe - Economy 1992
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Economy overview:
Agriculture employs three-fourths of the labor force and supplies almost 40% of exports. The manufacturing sector, based on agriculture and mining, produces a variety of goods and contributes 35% to
GDP. Mining accounts for only 5% of both GDP and employment, but supplies of minerals and metals account for about 40% of exports. Wide year-to-year fluctuations in agricultural production over the past six years have resulted in an uneven growth rate, one that on average has matched the 3% annual increase in population. Helped by an IMF/World Bank structural adjustment program, output rose 3.5% in 1991. A drought beginning toward the end of 1991 suggests rough going for 1992.

GDP: exchange rate conversion - $7.1 billion, per capita $660; real growth rate 3.5% (1991 est.)

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 11% of GDP and employs 74% of population; 40% of land area divided into 4,500 large commercial farms and 42% in communal lands; crops - corn (food staple), cotton, tobacco, wheat, coffee, sugarcane, peanuts; livestock - cattle, sheep, goats, pigs; self-sufficient in food

Industries: mining, steel, clothing and footwear, chemicals, foodstuffs, fertilizer, beverage, transportation equipment, wood products

Industrial production growth rate:
growth rate 5% (1991 est.); accounts for 35% of
GDP


Labor force: 3,100,000; agriculture 74%, transport and services 16%, mining, manufacturing, construction 10% (1987)
Organized labor: 17% of wage and salary earners have union membership
Labor force

Unemployment rate: at least 30% (1991 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $2.7 billion; expenditures $3.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $330 million (FY91)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $1.8 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
Commodoties: agricultural 35% (tobacco 20%, other 15%), manufactures 20%, gold 10%, ferrochrome 10%, cotton 5%
Partners: Europe 55% (EC 40%, Netherlands 5%, other 15%), Africa 20% (South Africa 10%, other 10%), US 5%

Imports: $1.6 billion (c.i.f., 1991 est.)
Commodoties: machinery and transportation equipment 37%, other manufactures 22%, chemicals 16%, fuels 15%
Partners: EC 31%, Africa 29% (South Africa 21%, other 8%), US 8%, Japan 4%

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Zimbabwean dollars (Z$) per US$1 - 4.3066 (March 1992), 3.4282 (1991), 2.4480 (1990), 2.1133 (1989), 1.8018 (1988), 1.6611 (1987)


Zimbabwe - Energy 1992
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 3,650,000 kW capacity; 7,500 million kWh produced, 700 kWh per capita (1991)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Zimbabwe - Communication 1992
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Zimbabwe - Military 1992
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: exchange rate conversion - $412.4 million, about 6% of GDP (FY91 est.)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Zimbabwe - Transportation 1992
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports:
491 total, 401 usable; 22 with permanent-surface runways; 2
with runways over 3,659 m; 3
with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 32
with runways 1,220-2,439 m


Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: petroleum products 8 km
Civil air: 12 major transport aircraft

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: Lake Kariba is a potential line of communication

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals


Zimbabwe - Transnational issues 1992
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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