Australia 1993Australia

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Australia - Introduction 1993
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Background: Australia became a British commonwealth in 1901. Blessed by rich natural resources, the country enjoyed rapid gains in herding, agriculture, and manufacturing and made a major contribution to the British effort in World Wars I and II. Australia subsequently developed its minerals, metals, and fossil fuel markets, all of which have become key Australian exports. Long-term concerns include pollution, particularly depletion of the ozone layer, and management and conservation of coastal areas, especially the Great Barrier Reef.


Australia - Geography 1993
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Location: Oceania, between Indonesia and New Zealand

Geographic coordinates

Map reference:
Southeast Asia, Oceania, Antarctic Region, Standard Time
Zones of the World


Area
Total: 7,686,850 km²
Land: 7,617,930 km²

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 25,760 km
Contiguous zone: 12 nm
Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation
Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Maritime claims

Climate: generally arid to semiarid; temperate in south and east; tropical in north

Terrain: mostly low plateau with deserts; fertile plain in southeast

Elevation

Natural resources: bauxite, coal, iron ore, copper, tin, silver, uranium, nickel, tungsten, mineral sands, lead, zinc, diamonds, natural gas, petroleum
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 6%
Permanent crops: 0%
Meadows and pastures: 58%
Other: 22%

Irrigated land: 18,800 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Australia - People 1993
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Population: 17,827,204 (July 1993 est.)
Growth rate: 1.41% (1993 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Australian(s)
Adjective: Australian

Ethnic groups: Caucasian 95%, Asian 4%, Aboriginal and other 1%

Languages: English, native languages

Religions: Anglican 26.1%, Roman Catholic 26%, other Christian 24.3%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.41% (1993 est.)

Birth rate: 14.43 births/1000 population (1993 est.)

Death rate: 7.38 deaths/1000 population (1993 est.)

Net migration rate: 7.01 migrant(s)/1000 population (1993 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: subject to severe droughts and floods; cyclones along coast; limited freshwater availability; irrigated soil degradation; regular, tropical, invigorating, sea breeze known as "the Doctor" occurs along west coast in summer; desertification
Current issues note: world's smallest continent but sixth-largest country

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 7.4 deaths/1000 live births (1993 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 77.36 years
Male: 74.24 years
Female: 80.63 years (1993 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.83 children born/woman (1993 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
Total population: 100%
Male: 100%
Female: 100%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Australia - Government 1993
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Country name
Conventional long form: Commonwealth of Australia
Conventional short form: Australia

Government type: federal parliamentary state

Capital: Canberra

Administrative divisions:
6 states and 2 territories*; Australian Capital
Territory*, New South Wales, Northern Territory*, Queensland, South Australia,
Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia


Dependent areas:
Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald Islands,
Norfolk Island


Independence: 1 January 1901 (federation of UK colonies)

National holiday: Australia Day, 26 January
Government: Australian Labor Party, Paul John KEATING
Opposition:
Liberal Party, John HEWSON; National Party, Timothy FISCHER;
Australian Democratic Party, John COULTER


Constitution: 9 July 1900, effective 1 January 1901

Legal system: based on English common law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch: British monarch, governor general, prime minister, deputy prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Parliament consists of an upper house or Senate and a lower house or House of Representatives

Judicial branch

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation:
AfDB, AG (observer), ANZUS, APEC, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS,
C, CCC, COCOM, CP, EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, GATT, G-8, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM,
ISO, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, MTCR, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OECD, PCA, SPARTECA,
SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNOSOM, UNTAC, UNTSO, UPU, WFTU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, ZC


Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Michael J. COOK
In the us chancery: 1601 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,036
In the us telephone: (202) 797-3,000
In the us consulates general:
Chicago, Honolulu, Houston, Los Angeles, New York,
Pago Pago (American Samoa), and San Francisco

From the us chief of mission: (vacant)
From the us embassy: Moonah Place, Yarralumla, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 2,600
From the us mailing address: APO AP 96,549
From the us telephone: 61 (6) 270-5,000
From the us fax: 61 (6) 270-5,970
From the us consulates general: Melbourne, Perth, and Sydney
From the us consulate: Brisbane

Flag descriptionflag of Australia: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and a large seven-pointed star in the lower hoist-side quadrant; the remaining half is a representation of the Southern Cross constellation in white with one small five-pointed star and four, larger, seven-pointed stars

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Australia - Economy 1993
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Economy overview: Australia has a prosperous Western-style capitalist economy, with a per capita GDP comparable to levels in industrialized West European countries. Rich in natural resources, Australia is a major exporter of agricultural products, minerals, metals, and fossil fuels. Of the top 25 exports, 21 are primary products, so that, as happened during 1983-84, a downturn in world commodity prices can have a big impact on the economy. The government is pushing for increased exports of manufactured goods, but competition in international markets continues to be severe.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 2.5% (1992)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 5% of GDP and 37% of export revenues; world's largest exporter of beef and wool, second-largest for mutton, and among top wheat exporters; major crops - wheat, barley, sugarcane, fruit; livestock - cattle, sheep, poultry

Industries: mining, industrial and transportation equipment, food processing, chemicals, steel

Industrial production growth rate: growth rate NA%; accounts for 32% of GDP

Labor force: 8.63 million (September 1991)
By occupation finance and services: 33.8%
By occupation public and community services: NA
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 11.3% (December 1992)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $68.5 billion; expenditures $78.0 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY93)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $41.7 billion (f.o.b., FY91)
Commodoties: coal, gold, meat, wool, alumina, wheat, machinery and transport equipment
Partners:
Japan 26%, US 11%, NZ 6%, South Korea 4%, Singapore 4%, UK,
Taiwan, Hong Kong


Imports: $37.8 billion (f.o.b., FY91)
Commodoties: machinery and transport equipment, computers and office machines, crude oil and petroleum products
Partners: US 24%, Japan 19%, UK 6%, FRG 7%, NZ 4% (1990)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.4837 (January 1993), 1.3600 (1992), 1.2836 (1991), 1.2799 (1990), 1.2618 (1989), 1.2752 (1988)


Australia - Energy 1993
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 40,000,000 kW capacity; 150,000 million kWh produced, 8,475 kWh per capita (1992)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Australia - Communication 1993
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Australia - Military 1993
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: exchange rate conversion - $7.1 billion, 2.4% of GDP (FY92/93)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Australia - Transportation 1993
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 481
Usable: 439
With permanentsurface runways: 243
With runways over 3659 m: 1
With runways 2440-3659 m: 20
With runways 1220-2439 m: 268

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: crude oil 2,500 km; petroleum products 500 km; natural gas 5,600 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 8,368 km; mainly by small, shallow-draft craft

Merchant marine:
82 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,347,271
GRT/3,534,926 DWT; includes 2 short-sea passenger, 8 cargo, 7 container, 8 roll-on/roll-off, 1 vehicle carrier, 17 oil tanker, 3 chemical tanker, 4 liquefied gas, 30 bulk, 2 combination bulk


Ports and terminals


Australia - Transnational issues 1993
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Disputes international:
territorial claim in Antarctica (Australian
Antarctic Territory)


Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: Tasmania is one of the world's major suppliers of licit opiate products; government maintains strict controls over areas of opium poppy cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate


Iberia


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