Bhutan 1993Bhutan

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Bhutan
Bhutan 

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Bhutan - Introduction 1993
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Background: Under British influence a monarchy was set up in 1907; three years later a treaty was signed whereby the country became a British protectorate. Independence was attained in 1949 with India subsequently guiding foreign relations and supplying aid.


Bhutan - Geography 1993
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Location

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceAsia, Standard Time Zones of the World

Area
Total: 47,000 km²
Land: 47,000 km²

Land boundaries: total 1,075 km, China 470 km, India 605 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

Climate: varies; tropical in southern plains; cool winters and hot summers in central valleys; severe winters and cool summers in Himalayas

Terrain: mostly mountainous with some fertile valleys and savanna

Elevation

Natural resources: timber, hydropower, gypsum, calcium carbide, tourism potential
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 2%
Permanent crops: 0%
Meadows and pastures: 5%
Forest and woodland: 70%
Other: 23%

Irrigated land: 340 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Bhutan - People 1993
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Population: 700,000 (July 1993 est.)
Growth rate: 2.33% (1993 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Bhutanese (singular and plural)
Adjective: Bhutanese

Ethnic groups: Bhote 50%, ethnic Nepalese 35%, indigenous or migrant tribes 15%

Languages:
Dzongkha (official), Bhotes speak various Tibetan dialects;
Nepalese speak various Nepalese dialects

Total population: NA%
Male: NA%
Female: NA%

Religions:
Lamaistic Buddhism 75%, Indian- and Nepalese-influenced
Hinduism 25%


Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 2.33% (1993 est.)

Birth rate: 39.59 births/1000 population (1993 est.)

Death rate: 16.26 deaths/1000 population (1993 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1993 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: violent storms coming down from the Himalayas were the source of the country name which translates as Land of the Thunder Dragon
Current issues note: landlocked; strategic location between China and India; controls several key Himalayan mountain passes

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 50.17 years
Male: 50.74 years
Female: 49.58 years (1993 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.45 children born/woman (1993 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Bhutan - Government 1993
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Country name
Conventional long form: Kingdom of Bhutan
Conventional short form: Bhutan

Government type: monarchy; special treaty relationship with India

Capital: Thimphu

Administrative divisions:
18 districts (dzongkhag, singular and plural);
Bumthang, Chhukha, Chirang, Daga, Geylegphug, Ha, Lhuntshi, Mongar, Paro,
Pemagatsel, Punakha, Samchi, Samdrup Jongkhar, Shemgang, Tashigang, Thimphu,
Tongsa, Wangdi Phodrang


Dependent areas

Independence: 8 August 1949 (from India)

National holiday: National Day, 17 December (1907) (Ugyen Wangchuck became first hereditary king)

Constitution: no written constitution or bill of rights compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Legal system

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: each family has one vote in village-level elections

Executive branch: monarch, chairman of the Royal Advisory Council, Royal Advisory Council (Lodoi Tsokde), chairman of the Council of Ministers, Council of Ministers (Lhengye Shungtsog)

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Tshogdu)

Judicial branch: High Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation:
AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IMF,
INTELSAT, IOC, ITU, NAM, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO


Diplomatic representation
In the us:
no formal diplomatic relations; the
Bhutanese mission to the UN in New York has consular jurisdiction in the US

From the us:
no formal diplomatic relations, although informal contact is maintained between the Bhutanese and US Embassies in New
Delhi (India)


Flag descriptionflag of Bhutan: divided diagonally from the lower hoist side corner; the upper triangle is orange and the lower triangle is red; centered along the dividing line is a large black and white dragon facing away from the hoist side

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Bhutan - Economy 1993
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Economy overview: The economy, one of the world's least developed, is based on agriculture and forestry, which provide the main livelihood for 90% of the population and account for about 50% of GDP. Rugged mountains dominate the terrain and make the building of roads and other infrastructure difficult and expensive. The economy is closely aligned with that of India through strong trade and monetary links. The industrial sector is small and technologically backward, with most production of the cottage industry type. Most development projects, such as road construction, rely on Indian migrant labor. Bhutan's hydropower potential and its attraction for tourists are its most important natural resources; however, the government limits the number of tourists to 3,000/year to minimize foreign influence.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 3.1% (1991 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 45% of GDP; based on subsistence farming and animal husbandry; self-sufficient in food except for foodgrains; other production - rice, corn, root crops, citrus fruit, dairy products, eggs

Industries: cement, wood products, processed fruits, alcoholic beverages, calcium carbide

Industrial production growth rate: growth rate NA%; accounts for 18% of GDP; primarily cottage industry and home based handicrafts

Labor force: NA
By occupation agriculture: 93%
By occupation services: 5%
By occupation industry and commerce:
2%
massivelackofskilledlabor

Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA%

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $112 million; expenditures $121 million, including capital expenditures of $58 million (FY91 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $74 million (f.o.b., FY91 est.)
Commodoties: cardamon, gypsum, timber, handicrafts, cement, fruit, electricity (to India)
Partners: India 90%

Imports: $106.4 million (c.i.f., FY91 est.)
Commodoties: fuel and lubricants, grain, machinery and parts, vehicles, fabrics
Partners: India 83%

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates:
ngultrum (Nu) per US$1 - 26.156 (January 1993), 25.918 (1992), 22.742 (1991), 17.504 (1990), 16.226 (1989), 13.917 (1988); note - the
Bhutanese ngultrum is at par with the Indian rupee



Bhutan - Energy 1993
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 336,000 kW capacity; 1,542.2 million kWh produced, 2,203 kWh per capita (25.8% is exported to India, leaving only 1,633 kWh per capita) (1990-91)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Bhutan - Communication 1993
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Bhutan - Military 1993
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Bhutan - Transportation 1993
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 2
Usable: 2
With runways over 3659 m: 0
With runways 2440-3659 m: 0
With runways 1220-2439 m: 2

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines

Railways

Roadways

Waterways

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals


Bhutan - Transnational issues 1993
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Disputes international: none

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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