Colombia 1993Colombia

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Colombia
Colombia 



Colombia - Introduction 1993
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Background: Colombia gained its independence from Spain in 1819. Earlier than most countries in the area, it established traditions of civilian government with regular, free elections. In recent years, however, assassinations, widespread guerrilla activities, and drug trafficking have severely disrupted normal public and private activities.


Colombia - Geography 1993
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Location: Northern South America, between Panama and Venezuela

Geographic coordinates

Map reference:
Central America and the Caribbean, South America, Standard
Time Zones of the World


Area
Total: 1,138,910 km²
Land: 1,038,700 km²

Land boundaries: total 7,408 km, Brazil 1,643 km, Ecuador 590 km, Panama 225 km, Peru 2,900 km, Venezuela 2,050 km

Coastline: 3,208 km (Caribbean Sea 1,760 km, North Pacific Ocean 1,448 km)
Continental shelf: not specified
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Maritime claims

Climate: tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in highlands

Terrain: flat coastal lowlands, central highlands, high Andes mountains, eastern lowland plains

Elevation

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel, gold, copper, emeralds
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 4%
Permanent crops: 2%
Meadows and pastures: 29%
Forest and woodland: 49%
Other: 16%

Irrigated land: 5,150 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Colombia - People 1993
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Population: 34,942,767 (July 1993 est.)
Growth rate: 1.83% (1993 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Colombian(s)
Adjective: Colombian

Ethnic groups: mestizo 58%, white 20%, mulatto 14%, black 4%, mixed black-Indian 3%, Indian 1%

Languages: Spanish

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.83% (1993 est.)

Birth rate: 23.4 births/1000 population (1993 est.)

Death rate: 4.82 deaths/1000 population (1993 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.25 migrant(s)/1000 population (1993 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: highlands subject to volcanic eruptions; deforestation; soil damage from overuse of pesticides; periodic droughts

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 29.7 deaths/1000 live births (1993 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 71.72 years
Male: 68.99 years
Female: 74.53 years (1993 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.54 children born/woman (1993 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
Total population: 87%
Male: 88%
Female: 86%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Colombia - Government 1993
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Colombia
Conventional short form: Colombia
Local long form: Republica de Colombia

Government type: republic; executive branch dominates government structure

Capital: Bogota

Administrative divisions:
23 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento), 5 commissariats* (comisarias, singular - comisaria), 4 intendancies** (intendencias, singular - intendencia), and 1 special district*** (distrito especial); Amazonas*, Antioquia, Arauca**, Atlantico,
Bogota***, Bolivar, Boyaca, Caldas, Caqueta, Casanare**, Cauca, Cesar, Choco,
Cordoba, Cundinamarca, Guainia*, Guaviare*, Huila, La Guajira, Magdalena,
Meta, Narino, Norte de Santander, Putumayo**, Quindio, Risaralda, San Andres y
Providencia**, Santander, Sucre, Tolima, Valle del Cauca, Vaupes*, Vichada*
the Constitution of 5 July 1991 states that the commissariats and intendancies are to become full departments and a capital district (distrito capital) of Santa Fe de Bogota is to be established by 1997


Dependent areas

Independence: 20 July 1810 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 20 July (1810)

Constitution: 5 July 1991

Legal system: based on Spanish law; judicial review of executive and legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch

Legislative branch: bicameral Congress (Congreso) consists of a nationally elected upper chamber or Senate (Senado) and a nationally elected lower chamber or House of Representatives (Camara de Representantes)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justical), Constitutional Court, Council of State

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation:
AG, CDB, CG, ECLAC, FAO, G-3, G-11, G-24, G-77, GATT, IADB,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS, NAM, OAS, ONUSAL,
OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNPROFOR, UPU, WCL, WFTU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Jaime GARCIA Parra
In the us chancery: 2,118 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: (202) 387-8,338
In the us consulates general:
Chicago, Houston, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San
Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)

In the us consulates: Atlanta, Boston, Detroit, Los Angeles, and Tampa
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Morris D. BUSBY
From the us embassy: Calle 38, No. 8-61, Bogota
From the us mailing address: P. O. Box A. A. 3,831, Bogota or APO AA 34,038
From the us telephone: 57 (1) 285-1300 or 1688
From the us fax: 57 (1) 288-5,687
From the us consulate: Barranquilla

Flag descriptionflag of Colombia: three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double-width), blue, and red; similar to the flag of Ecuador, which is longer and bears the Ecuadorian coat of arms superimposed in the center

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Colombia - Economy 1993
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Economy overview: Economic development has slowed gradually since 1986, but growth rates remain high by Latin American standards. Conservative economic policies have kept inflation and unemployment near 30% and 10%, respectively. The rapid development of oil, coal, and other nontraditional industries in recent years has helped to offset the decline in coffee prices - Colombia's major export. The collapse of the International Coffee Agreement in the summer of 1989, a troublesome rural insurgency, energy rationing, and drug-related violence have resurgence expected from government reforms. These reforms center on fiscal restraint, trade and investment liberalization, financial and labor reform, and privatization of state utilities and commercial banks.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 3.3% (1992 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: growth rate 3% (1991 est.) accounts for 22% of GDP; crops make up two-thirds and livestock one-third of agricultural output; climate and soils permit a wide variety of crops, such as coffee, rice, tobacco, corn, sugarcane, cocoa beans, oilseeds, vegetables; forest products and shrimp farming are becoming more important

Industries: textiles, food processing, oil, clothing and footwear, beverages, chemicals, metal products, cement; mining - gold, coal, emeralds, iron, nickel, silver, salt

Industrial production growth rate: growth rate -0.5% (1991; accounts for 20% of GDP

Labor force: 12 million (1990)
By occupation services: 46%
By occupation agriculture: 30%
By occupation industry: 24% (1990)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 10% (1992)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $5.0 billion; current expenditures $5.1 billion, capital expenditures $964 million (1991 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $7.4 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
Commodoties: petroleum, coffee, coal, bananas, fresh cut flowers
Partners: US 44%, EC 21%, Japan 5%, Netherlands 4%, Sweden 3% (1991)

Imports: $5.5 billion (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
Commodoties: industrial equipment, transportation equipment, consumer goods, chemicals, paper products
Partners: US 36%, EC 16%, Brazil 4%, Venezuela 3%, Japan 3% (1991)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates


Colombia - Energy 1993
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 10,193,000 kW capacity; 36,000 million kWh produced, 1,050 kWh per capita (1992)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Colombia - Communication 1993
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Colombia - Military 1993
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: exchange rate conversion - $630 million, 1.3% of GDP (1993 est.)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Colombia - Transportation 1993
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 1,233
Usable: 1,059
With permanentsurface: 69
With runways over 3659 m: 1
With runways 24402459 m: 9
With runways 1220-2439 m: 200

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: crude oil 3,585 km; petroleum products 1,350 km; natural gas 830 km; natural gas liquids 125 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 14,300 km, navigable by river boats

Merchant marine:
27 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 227,719 GRT/356,665
DWT; includes 9 cargo, 3 oil tanker, 8 bulk, 7 container


Ports and terminals


Colombia - Transnational issues 1993
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Disputes international:
maritime boundary dispute with Venezuela in the
Gulf of Venezuela; territorial dispute with Nicaragua over Archipelago de San
Andres y Providencia and Quita Sueno Bank


Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis, coca, and opium; about 37,500 hectares of coca under cultivation; the world's largest processor of coca derivatives into cocaine; supplier of cocaine to the US and other international drug markets


Corel


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