Greece 1993Greece

 Greece | | | | | |
| | | :  |



Greece - Introduction 1993
top of page

Background: Greece achieved its independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1829. During the second half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century it gradually added neighboring islands and territories with Greek-speaking populations. Following the defeat of communist rebels in 1949 Greece joined NATO in 1952. A military dictatorship which in 1967 had suspended many political liberties and forced the king to flee the country was itself overthrown seven years later. Democratic elections in 1974 abolished the monarchy and created a parliamentary republic; Greece joined the EU in 1981.

Greece - Geography 1993
top of page

Location: Southern Europe, bordering the Mediterranean Sea between Turkey and Bulgaria

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceAfrica, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World

Total: land: 130,800 km²

Land boundaries: total 1,210 km, Albania 282 km, Bulgaria 494 km, Turkey 206 km, Macedonia 228 km

Coastline: 13,676 km
Continental shelf: 200 m depth or to depth of exploitation
Territorial sea: 6 nm, but Greece has threatened to claim 12 nm

Maritime claims

Climate: temperate; mild, wet winters; hot, dry summers

Terrain: mostly mountains with ranges extending into sea as peninsulas or chains of islands


Natural resources: bauxite, lignite, magnesite, petroleum, marble
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 23%
Permanent crops: 8%
Meadows and pastures: 40%
Forest and woodland: 20%
Other: 9%

Irrigated land: 11,900 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards


Greece - People 1993
top of page

Population: 10,470,460 (July 1993 est.)
Growth rate: 0.95% (1993 est.)

Noun: Greek(s)
Adjective: Greek

Ethnic groups: Greek 98%, other 2%

Languages: Greek (official), English, French

Religions: Greek Orthodox 98%, Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 0.95% (1993 est.)

Birth rate: 10.42 births/1000 population (1993 est.)

Death rate: 9.36 deaths/1000 population (1993 est.)

Net migration rate: 8.46 migrant(s)/1000 population (1993 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: subject to severe earthquakes; air pollution
Current issues note:
strategic location dominating the Aegean Sea and southern approach to
Turkish Straits; a peninsular country, possessing an archipelago of about 2,000 islands

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 8.9 deaths/1000 live births (1993 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Male: 75.02 years
Female: 80.12 years (1993 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.44 children born/woman (1993 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
Total population: 93%
Male: 98%
Female: 89%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Greece - Government 1993
top of page

Country name
Conventional long form: Hellenic Republic
Conventional short form: Greece
Local long form: Elliniki Dhimokratia
Local short form: Ellas
Former: Kingdom of Greece

Government type: presidential parliamentary government; monarchy rejected by referendum 8 December 1974

Capital: Athens

Administrative divisions:
52 prefectures (nomoi, singular - nomos);
Aitolia kai Akarnania, Akhaia, Argolis, Arkadhia, Arta, Attiki, Dhodhekanisos,
Dhrama, Evritania, Evros, Evvoia, Florina, Fokis, Fthiotis, Grevena, Ilia,
Imathia, Ioannina, Iraklion, Kardhitsa, Kastoria, Kavala, Kefallinia, Kerkira,
Khalkidhiki, Khania, Khios, Kikladhes, Kilkis, Korinthia, Kozani, Lakonia,

Voiotia Xanthi Zakinthos autonomous region: Agion Oros (Mt. Athos)

Dependent areas

Independence: 1829 (from the Ottoman Empire)

National holiday: Independence Day, 25 March (1821) (proclamation of the war of independence)

Constitution: 11 June 1975

Legal system: based on codified Roman law; judiciary divided into civil, criminal, and administrative courts

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral Greek Chamber of Deputies (Vouli ton Ellinon)

Judicial branch: Supreme Judicial Court, Special Supreme Tribunal

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation:
Australian Group, BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE, CERN, COCOM, CSCE, EBRD,
MINURSO, MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, PCA,

Chief of mission: Ambassador Christos ZACHARAKIS
Chancery: 2,221 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,008
Telephone: (202) 939-5,800
Fax: (202) 939-5,824
Consulates general:
Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, New York, and
San Francisco

Consulate: New Orleans

Diplomatic representation
From the us chief of mission: (vacant); Charge d'Affaires James A. WILLIAMS
From the us embassy: 91 Vasilissis Sophias Boulevard, 10,160 Athens
From the us mailing address: PSC 108, Box 56, APO AE 9,842
From the us telephone: 30 (1) 721-2,951 or 721-8,401
From the us fax: 30 (1) 645-6,282
From the us consulate general: Thessaloniki

Flag descriptionflag of Greece: nine equal horizontal stripes of blue alternating with white; there is a blue square in the upper hoist-side corner bearing a white cross; the cross symbolizes Greek Orthodoxy, the established religion of the country

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Greece - Economy 1993
top of page

Economy overview: Greece has a mixed capitalist economy with the basic entrepreneurial system overlaid in 1981-89 by a socialist system that enlarged the public sector from 55% of GDP in 1981 to about 70% when Prime Minister MITSOTAKIS took office. Tourism continues as a major source of foreign exchange, and agriculture is self-sufficient except for meat, dairy products, and animal feedstuffs. Since 1986, real GDP growth has averaged only 1.6% a year, compared with the Europen Community average of 3%. The MITSOTAKIS government has made little progress during its two and one-half years in power in coming to grips with Greece's main economic problems: an inflation rate still four times the EC average, a large public sector deficit, and a fragile current account position. In early 1991, the government secured a three-year,$2.5 billion assistance package from the EC under the strictest terms yet imposed on a member country, as the EC finally ran out of patience with Greece's failure to put its financial affairs in order. On the advice of the EC Commission, Greece delayed applying for the second installment until 1993 because of the failure of the government to meet the 1992 targets. Although MITSOTAKIS faced down the unions in mid-1992 in a dispute over privatization plans, social security reform, and tax and price increases, and his new economics czar, Stephanos MANOS, is a respected economist committed to renovating the ailing economy. However, a national elections due by May 1994 will probably prompt MITSOTAKIS to backtrack on economic reform. In 1993, the GDP growth rate likely will remain low; the inflation rate probably will continue to fall, while remaining the highest in the EC.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: including fishing and forestry, accounts for 15% of GDP and 27% of the labor force; principal products - wheat, corn, barley, sugar beets, olives, tomatoes, wine, tobacco, potatoes; self-sufficient in food except meat, dairy products, and animal feedstuffs; fish catch of 116,600 metric tons in 1988

Industries: food and tobacco processing, textiles, chemicals, metal products, tourism, mining, petroleum

Industrial production growth rate: growth rate -1.0% (1991; accounts for 20% of GDP

Labor force: 3,966,900
By occupation services: 45%
By occupation agriculture: 27%
By occupation industry: 28% (1990)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 9.1% (1992)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $37.6 billion; expenditures $45.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $5.4 billion (1993)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $6.8 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
Commodoties: manufactured goods 53%, foodstuffs 31%, fuels 9%
Partners: Germany 24%, France 18%, Italy 17%, UK 7%, US 6%

Imports: $21.5 billion (c.i.f., 1991)
Commodoties: manufactured goods 71%, foodstuffs 14%, fuels 10%
Partners: Germany 20%, Italy 14%, France 8%, UK 5%, US 4%

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: drachma (Dr) per US$1 - 215.82 (January 1993), 190.62 (1992), 182.27 (1991), 158.51 (1990), 162.42 (1989), 141.86 (1988)

Greece - Energy 1993
top of page

Electricity access

Electricity production: 10,500,000 kW capacity; 36,400 million kWh produced, 3,610 kWh per capita (1992)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Greece - Communication 1993
top of page

Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Greece - Military 1993
top of page

Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: exchange rate conversion - $4.2 billion, 5.1% of GDP (1992)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Greece - Transportation 1993
top of page

National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 78
Usable: 77
With permanentsurface runways: 63
With runways over 3659 m: 0
With runways 2440-3659 m: 20
With runways 1220-2439 m: 24

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: crude oil 26 km; petroleum products 547 km



Waterways: 80 km; system consists of three coastal canals; including the Corinth Canal (6 km) which crosses the Isthmus of Corinth connecting the Gulf of Corinth with the Saronic Gulf and shortens the sea voyage from the Adriatic to Piraievs (Piraeus) by 325 km; and three unconnected rivers

Merchant marine:
998 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 25,483,768
GRT/47,047,285 DWT; includes 14 passenger, 66 short-sea passenger, 2 passenger-cargo, 128 cargo, 26 container, 15 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 14 refrigerated cargo, 1 vehicle carrier, 214 oil tanker, 19 chemical tanker, 7 liquefied gas, 42 combination ore/oil, 3 specialized tanker, 424 bulk, 22 combination bulk, 1 livestock carrier; note - ethnic Greeks also own large numbers of ships under the registry of Liberia, Panama, Cyprus, Malta, and The

Ports and terminals

Greece - Transnational issues 1993
top of page

Disputes international: air, continental shelf, and territorial water disputes with Turkey in Aegean Sea; Cyprus question; northern Epirus question with Albania; Macedonia question with Bulgaria and Macedonia

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis and limited opium; mostly for domestic production; serves as a gateway to Europe for traffickers smuggling cannabis and heroin from the Middle East and Southwest Asia to the West and precursor chemicals to the East; transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan route

Qatar Airways

You found a piece of the puzzle

Please click here to complete it