Lebanon 1993Lebanon

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Lebanon - Introduction 1993
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Background: Lebanon has made progress toward rebuilding its political institutions and regaining its national sovereignty since the end of the devastating 16-year civil war which began in 1975. Under the Ta'if accord_the blueprint for national reconciliation_the Lebanese have established a more equitable political system, particularly by giving Muslims a greater say in the political process. Since December 1990, the Lebanese have formed four cabinets and conducted the first legislative election in 20 years. Most of the militias have been weakened or disbanded. The Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF) has seized vast quantities of weapons used by the militias during the war and extended central government authority over about one-half of the country. Hizballah, the radical Shi'a party, retains most of its weapons. Foreign forces still occupy areas of Lebanon. Israel maintains troops in southern Lebanon and continues to support a proxy militia, The Army of South Lebanon (ASL), along a narrow stretch of territory contiguous to its border. The ASL's enclave encompasses this self-declared security zone and about 20 kilometers north to the strategic town of Jazzin. Syria maintains about 30,000 troops in Lebanon. These troops are based mainly in Beirut, North Lebanon, and the Bekaa Valley. Syria's deployment was legitimized by the Arab League early in Lebanon's civil war and in the Ta'if accord. Citing the continued weakness of the LAF, Beirut's requests, and failure of the Lebanese Government to implement all of the constitutional reforms in the Ta'if accord, Damascus has so far refused to withdraw its troops from Beirut.

Lebanon - Geography 1993
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Location: Middle East, in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, between Israel and Syria

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceAfrica, Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World

Total: 10,400 km²
Land: 10,230 km²

Land boundaries: total 454 km, Israel 79 km, Syria 375 km

Coastline: 225 km
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Maritime claims

Mediterranean; mild to cool, wet winters with hot, dry summers;
Lebanon mountians experience heavy winter snows and Anti-Lebanon Mountains



Natural resources: limestone, iron ore, salt, water-surplus state in a water-deficit region
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 21%
Permanent crops: 9%
Meadows and pastures: 1%
Forest and woodland: 8%
Other: 61%

Irrigated land: 860 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards


Lebanon - People 1993
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Population: 3,552,369 (July 1993 est.)
Growth rate: 1.81% (1993 est.)

Noun: Lebanese (singular and plural)
Adjective: Lebanese

Ethnic groups: Arab 95%, Armenian 4%, other 1%

Languages: Arabic (official), French (official), Armenian, English

Islam 70% (5 legally recognized Islamic groups - Alawite or
Judaism NEGL%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.81% (1993 est.)

Birth rate: 27.86 births/1000 population (1993 est.)

Death rate: 6.66 deaths/1000 population (1993 est.)

Net migration rate: -3.1 migrant(s)/1000 population (1993 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: rugged terrain historically helped isolate, protect, and develop numerous factional groups based on religion, clan, ethnicity; deforestation; soil erosion; air and water pollution; desertification
Current issues note: Nahr al Litani only major river in Near East not crossing an international boundary

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 41 deaths/1000 live births (1993 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 69.01 years
Male: 66.63 years
Female: 71.52 years (1993 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.47 children born/woman (1993 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
Total population: 80%
Male: 88%
Female: 73%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Lebanon - Government 1993
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Lebanon
Conventional short form: Lebanon
Local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Lubnaniyah
Local short form: none

Government type: republic

Capital: Beirut

Administrative divisions: 5 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah; Al Biqa, 'Al Janub, Ash Shamal, Bayrut, Jabal Lubnan

Dependent areas

Independence: 22 November 1943 (from League of Nations mandate under French administration)

National holiday: Independence Day, 22 November (1943)

Constitution: 26 May 1926 (amended)

Legal system:
mixture of Ottoman law, canon law, Napoleonic code, and civil law; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 21 years of age; compulsory for all males; authorized for women at age 21 with elementary education

Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet; note - by custom, the president is a Maronite Christian, the prime minister is a Sunni Muslim, and the speaker of the legislature is a Shi'a Muslim

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Arabic - Majlis Alnuwab, French - Assemblee Nationale)

Judicial branch: four Courts of Cassation (three courts for civil and commercial cases and one court for criminal cases)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation:

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Simon KARAM
In the us chancery: 2,560 28th Street NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: (202) 939-6,300
In the us consulates general: Detroit, New York, and Los Angeles
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Ryan C. CROCKER mailing
From the us embassy: Antelias, Beirut address: P. O. Box 70-840, Beirut, or Box B, FPO AE 9,836
From the us telephone: 961 417,774 or 415,802, 415,803, 402,200, 403,300

Flag descriptionflag of Lebanon: three horizontal bands of red (top), white (double width), and red with a green and brown cedar tree centered in the white band

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Lebanon - Economy 1993
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Economy overview: Since 1975 civil war has seriously damaged Lebanon's economic infrastructure, cut national output by half, and all but ended Lebanon's position as a Middle Eastern entrepot and banking hub. Following October 1990, however, a tentative peace has enabled the central government to begin restoring control in Beirut, collect taxes, and regain access to key port and government facilities. The battered economy has also been propped up by a financially sound banking system and resilient small- and medium-scale manufacturers. Family remittances, banking transactions, manufactured and farm exports, the narcotics trade, and international emergency aid are main sources of foreign exchange. In the relatively settled year of 1991, industrial production, agricultural output, and exports showed substantial gains. The rests with the new, business-oriented Prime Minister HARIRI.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: NA%

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for about one-third of GDP; principal products - citrus fruits, vegetables, potatoes, olives, tobacco, hemp (hashish), sheep, goats; not self-sufficient in grain

Industries: banking, food processing, textiles, cement, oil refining, chemicals, jewelry, some metal fabricating

Industrial production growth rate: growth rate NA%

Labor force: 650,000
By occupation industry commerce and services: 79%
By occupation agriculture: 11%
By occupation government: 10% (1985)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 35% (1991 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $533 million; expenditures $1.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1991 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $490 million (f.o.b., 1991)
Commodoties: agricultural products, chemicals, textiles, precious and semiprecious metals and jewelry, metals and metal products
Partners: Saudi Arabia 21%, Switzerland 9.5%, Jordan 6%, Kuwait 12%, US 5%

Imports: $3.7 billion (c.i.f., 1991)
Commodoties: Consumer goods, machinery and transport equipment, petroleum products
Partners: Italy 14%, France 12%, US 6%, Turkey 5%, Saudi Arabia 3%

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Lebanese pounds (#L) per US$1 - 1,742.00 (April 1993), 1,712.80 (1992), 928.23 (1991), 695.09 (1990), 496.69 (1989), 409.23 (1988)

Lebanon - Energy 1993
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 1,300,000 kW capacity; 3,413 million kWh produced, 990 kWh per capita (1992)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Lebanon - Communication 1993
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Lebanon - Military 1993
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: exchange rate conversion - $271 million, 8.2% of GDP (1992 budget)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Lebanon - Transportation 1993
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 9
Usable: 8
With permanentsurface runways: 6
With runways over 3659 m: 0
With runways 2440-3659 m: 3
With runways 1220-2439 m: 2

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: crude oil 72 km (none in operation)




Merchant marine:
63 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 270,505 GRT/403,328
DWT; includes 39 cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo, 2 vehicle carrier, 3 roll-on/roll-off, 1 container, 9 livestock carrier, 2 chemical tanker, 1 specialized tanker, 4 bulk, 1 combination bulk

Ports and terminals

Lebanon - Transnational issues 1993
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Disputes international:
separated from Israel by the 1949 Armistice Line;
Israeli troops in southern Lebanon since June 1982; Syrian troops in northern, central, and eastern Lebanon since October 1976

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of opium, hashish, and heroin for the international drug trade; opium poppy production in Al Biqa almost completely eradicated this year; hashish production is shipped to Western Europe, Israel,
US, the Middle East, and South America

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