Somalia 1993Somalia

 Somalia | | | | | |
| | | :  |

Somalia
Somalia 

Tiqets


Somalia - Introduction 1993
top of page


Background: Intermittent civil war has been a fact of life in Somalia since 1977. In 1991 the northern portion of the country declared its independence as Somaliland; although de facto independent and relatively stable compared to the tumultuous south it has not been recognized by any foreign government. Beginning in 1993 a two-year UN humanitarian effort (primarily in the south) was started.


Somalia - Geography 1993
top of page


Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the northwestern Indian Ocean, south of the Arabian Peninsula

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceAfrica, Standard Time Zones of the World

Area
Total: 637,660 km²
Land: 627,340 km²

Land boundaries: total 2,366 km, Djibouti 58 km, Ethiopia 1,626 km, Kenya 682 km

Coastline: 3,025 km
Territorial sea: 200 nm

Maritime claims

Climate: desert; northeast monsoon (December to February), cooler southwest monsoon (May to October; irregular rainfall; hot, humid periods (tangambili) between monsoons

Terrain: mostly flat to undulating plateau rising to hills in north

Elevation

Natural resources: uranium and largely unexploited reserves of iron ore, tin, gypsum, bauxite, copper, salt
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 2%
Permanent crops: 0%
Meadows and pastures: 46%
Forest and woodland: 14%
Other: 38%

Irrigated land: 1,600 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Somalia - People 1993
top of page


Population: 6,514,629 (July 1993 est.)
Growth rate: 1.35% (1993 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Somali(s)
Adjective: Somali

Ethnic groups: Somali 85%, Bantu, Arabs 30,000, Europeans 3,000, Asians 800

Languages: Somali (official), Arabic, Italian, English

Religions: Sunni Muslim

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.35% (1993 est.)

Birth rate

Death rate: 28.41 deaths/1000 population (1993 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1993 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: recurring droughts; frequent dust storms over eastern plains in summer; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
Current issues note:
strategic location on Horn of Africa along southern approaches to
Bab el Mandeb and route through Red Sea and Suez Canal


Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 162.7 deaths/1000 live births (1993 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 32.91 years
Male: 32.86 years
Female: 32.95 years (1993 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.4 children born/woman (1993 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
Total population: 24%
Male: 36%
Female: 14%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Somalia - Government 1993
top of page


Country name
Conventional long form: none
Conventional short form: Somalia
Former: Somali Republic

Government type: none

Capital

Administrative divisions:
18 regions (plural - NA, singular - gobolka);
Awdal, Bakool, Banaadir, Bari, Bay, Galguduud, Gedo, Hiiraan, Jubbada Dhexe,
Jubbada Hoose, Mudug, Nugaal, Sanaag, Shabeellaha Dhexe, Shabeellaha Hoose,
Sool, Togdheer, Woqooyi Galbeed


Dependent areas

Independence: 1 July 1960 (from a merger of British Somaliland, which became independent from the UK on 26 June 1960, and Italian Somaliland, which became independent from the Italian-administered UN trusteeship on 1 July 1960, to form the Somali Republic)

National holiday: NA

Constitution: 25 August 1979, presidential approval 23 September 1979

Legal system: NA

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: president, two vice presidents, prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral People's Assembly (Golaha Shacbiga; non-functioning

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (non-functioning)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation:
ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO,
IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IGADD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO


Diplomatic representation
In the us chancery: Suite 710, 600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,037
In the us telephone: (202) 342-1575
In the us consulate general: New York; Somalian Embassy ceased operations on 8 May 1991
From the us: the US Embassy in Mogadishu was evacuated and closed indefinitely in January 1991; United States Liaison Office (USLO) opened in December 1992

Flag descriptionflag of Somalia: light blue with a large white five-pointed star in the center; design based on the flag of the UN (Italian Somaliland was a UN trust territory)

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Somalia - Economy 1993
top of page


Economy overview: One of the world's poorest and least developed countries, Somalia has few resources. Moreover, much of the economy has been devastated by the civil war. Agriculture is the most important sector, with livestock accounting for about 40% of GDP and about 65% of export earnings. Nomads and seminomads who are dependent upon livestock for their livelihoods make up more than half of the population. Crop production generates only 10% of GDP and employs about 20% of the work force. The main export crop is bananas; sugar, sorghum, and corn are grown for the domestic market. The small industrial sector is based on the processing of agricultural products and accounts for less than 10% of GDP. Greatly increased political turmoil in 1991-92 has resulted in a substantial drop in output, with widespread famine.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: NA%

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: dominant sector, led by livestock raising (cattle, sheep, goats; crops - bananas, sorghum, corn, mangoes, sugarcane; not self-sufficient in food; distribution of food disrupted by civil strife; fishing potential largely unexploited

Industries: a few small industries, including sugar refining, textiles, petroleum refining; probably shut down by the widespread destruction during the civil war

Industrial production growth rate: growth rate NA%, accounts for NA% of GDP foreign military units in Somalia use their own portable power systems

Labor force: 2.2 million (very few are skilled laborers)
By occupation pastoralnomad: 70%
By occupation agriculture government trading fishing handicrafts andother:
30%
53% of population of working age (1985)

Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA%

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $NA
Commodoties: bananas, livestock, fish, hides, skins
Partners: Saudi Arabia, Italy, FRG (1986)

Imports: $NA
Commodoties: petroleum products, foodstuffs, construction materials
Partners: US 13%, Italy, FRG, Kenya, UK, Saudi Arabia (1986)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Somali shillings (So. Sh.) per US$1 - 4,200 (December 1992), 3,800.00 (December 1990), 490.7 (1989), 170.45 (1988), 105.18 (1987), 72.00 (1986)


Somalia - Energy 1993
top of page


Electricity access

Electricity production

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Somalia - Communication 1993
top of page


Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Somalia - Military 1993
top of page


Military expenditures

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Somalia - Transportation 1993
top of page


National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 69
Usable: 48
With permanentsurface runways: 8
With runways over 3659 m: 2
With runways 2440-3659 m: 6
With runways 1220-2439 m: 20

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: crude oil 15 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways

Merchant marine: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,913 GRT/8,718 DWT; includes 2 cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo

Ports and terminals


Somalia - Transnational issues 1993
top of page


Disputes international:
southern half of boundary with Ethiopia is a
Provisional Administrative Line; territorial dispute with Ethiopia over the
Ogaden; possible claims to Djibouti and parts of Ethiopia and Kenya based on unification of ethnic Somalis


Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


Sesame


You found a piece of the puzzle

Please click here to complete it