Sudan 1993Sudan

 Sudan | | | | | |
| | | :  |

Sudan
Sudan 

Turbopass


Sudan - Introduction 1993
top of page


Background: Military dictatorships promulgating an Islamic government have mostly run the country since independence from the UK in 1956. Over the past two decades a civil war pitting black Christians and animists in the south against the Arab-Muslims of the north has cost at least 1.5 million lives in war and famine-related deaths as well as the displacement of millions of others.


Sudan - Geography 1993
top of page


Location: Northern Africa, along the Red Sea, between Egypt and Ethiopia

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceAfrica, Standard Time Zones of the World

Area
Total: 2,505,810 km²
Land: 2.376 million km²

Land boundaries:
total 7,697 km, Central African Republic 1,165 km, Chad 1,360 km, Egypt 1,273 km, Ethiopia 2,221 km, Kenya 232 km, Libya 383 km,
Uganda 435 km, Zaire 628 km


Coastline: 853 km
Contiguous zone: 18 nm
Continental shelf: 200 m depth or to depth of exploitation
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Maritime claims

Climate

Terrain: generally flat, featureless plain; mountains in east and west

Elevation

Natural resources: small reserves of petroleum, iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 5%
Permanent crops: 0%
Meadows and pastures: 24%
Forest and woodland: 20%
Other: 51%

Irrigated land: 18,900 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Sudan - People 1993
top of page


Population: 28,730,381 (July 1993 est.)
Growth rate: 2.38% (1993 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Sudanese (singular and plural)
Adjective: Sudanese

Ethnic groups: black 52%, Arab 39%, Beja 6%, foreigners 2%, other 1%

Languages:
Arabic (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, diverse dialects of
Nilotic, Nilo-Hamitic, Sudanic languages, English

Note: program of Arabization in process

Religions: Sunni Muslim 70% (in north), indigenous beliefs 25%, Christian

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 2.38% (1993 est.)

Birth rate: 42.65 births/1000 population (1993 est.)

Death rate: 12.45 deaths/1000 population (1993 est.)

Net migration rate: -6.4 migrant(s)/1000 population (1993 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: dominated by the Nile and its tributaries; dust storms; desertification
Current issues note: largest country in Africa

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 81.3 deaths/1000 live births (1993 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 53.85 years
Male: 53 years
Female: 54.73 years (1993 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.19 children born/woman (1993 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
Total population: 27%
Male: 43%
Female: 12%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Sudan - Government 1993
top of page


Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of the Sudan
Conventional short form: Sudan
Local long form: Jumhuriyat as-Sudan
Local short form: As-Sudan
Former: Anglo-Egyptian Sudan

Government type: military civilian government suspended and martial law imposed after 30 June 1989 coup

Capital: Khartoum

Administrative divisions:
9 states (wilayat, singular - wilayat or wilayah*); A'ali an Nil, Al Wusta*, Al Istiwa'iyah*, Al Khartum, Ash
Shamaliyah*, Ash Sharqiyah*, Bahr al Ghazal, Darfur, Kurdufan


Dependent areas

Independence: 1 January 1956 (from Egypt and UK)

National holiday

Constitution: 12 April 1973, suspended following coup of 6 April 1985; interim constitution of 10 October 1985 suspended following coup of 30 June 1989

Legal system:
based on English common law and Islamic law; as of 20
January 1991, the Revolutionary Command Council imposed Islamic law in the six northern states of Al Wusta, Al Khartum, Ash Shamaliyah, Ash Sharqiyah,
Darfur, and Kurdufan; the council is still studying criminal provisions under
Islamic law; Islamic law will apply to all residents of the six northern states regardless of their religion; some separate religious courts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations


International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: none

Executive branch: executive and legislative authority vested in a 10-member Revolutionary Command Council (RCC; chairman of the RCC acts as prime minister; in July 1989, RCC appointed a predominately civilian 22-member cabinet to function as advisers
Note:
Lt. Gen. BASHIR's military government is dominated by members of
Sudan's National Islamic Front, a fundamentalist political organization formed from the Muslim Brotherhood in 1986; front leader Hasan al-TURABI controls
Khartoum's overall domestic and foreign policies


Legislative branch: appointed 300-member Transitional National Assembly; note - as announced 1 January 1992 by RCC Chairman BASHIR, the Assembly assumes all legislative authority for Sudan until the eventual, unspecified resumption of national elections

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, Special Revolutionary Courts

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation:
ABEDA, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IGADD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR,
UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador 'Abdalla Ahmad 'ABDALLA
In the us chancery: 2,210 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: (202) 338-8,565 through 8,570
In the us consulate general: New York
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Donald K. PETTERSON
From the us embassy: Shar'ia Ali Abdul Latif, Khartoum
From the us mailing address: P. O. Box 699, Khartoum, or APO AE 9,829
From the us telephone: 74,700 or 74,611
From the us fax: Telex 22,619 green isosceles triangle based on the hoist side

Flag descriptionflag of Sudan

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Sudan - Economy 1993
top of page


Economy overview: Sudan is buffeted by civil war, chronic political instability, adverse weather, high inflation, a drop in remittances from abroad, and counterproductive economic policies. The economy is dominated by governmental entities that account for more than 70% of new investment. The private sector's main areas of activity are agriculture and trading, with most private industrial investment predating 1980. The economy's base is agriculture, which employs 80% of the work force. Industry mainly processes agricultural items. Sluggish economic performance over the past decade, attributable largely to declining annual rainfall, has reduced levels of per capita income and consumption. A large foreign debt and huge arrearages continue to cause difficulties. In 1990 the International Monetary Fund took the unusual step of declaring Sudan noncooperative because of its nonpayment of arrearages to the Fund. Despite subsequent government efforts to implement reforms urged by the IMF and the World Bank, the economy remained stagnant in FY91 as entrepreneurs lack the incentive to take economic risks. Growth in 1992 was featured by the recovery of agricultural production in northern Sudan after two years of drought.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 9% (FY92 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products

Industries: cotton ginning, textiles, cement, edible oils, sugar, soap distilling, shoes, petroleum refining shortages; two-thirds of land area suitable for raising crops and livestock; major products - cotton, oilseeds, sorghum, millet, wheat, gum arabic, sheep; marginally self-sufficient in most foods

Industrial production growth rate: growth rate 4.8%; accounts for 11% of GDP (FY92)

Labor force: 6.5 million
By occupation agriculture: 80%
By occupation industry and commerce: 10%
By occupation government: 6%
Note:
labor shortages for almost all categories of skilled employment (1983 est.)
52% of population of working age (1985)

Labor force

Unemployment rate: 30% (FY92 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $1.3 billion; expenditures $2.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $505 million (FY91 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $315 million (f.o.b., FY92 est.)
Commodoties: cotton 52%, sesame, gum arabic, peanuts
Partners: Western Europe 46%, Saudi Arabia 14%, Eastern Europe 9%, Japan 9%, US 3% (FY88)

Imports: $1.3 billion (c.i.f., FY92 est.)
Commodoties: foodstuffs, petroleum products, manufactured goods, machinery and equipment, medicines and chemicals, textiles
Partners: Western Europe 32%, Africa and Asia 15%, US 13%, Eastern Europe 3% (FY88)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: official rate - Sudanese pounds (#Sd) per US$1 - 124 (January 1993), 90.1 (March 1992), 5.4288 (1991), 4.5004 (fixed rate since 1987), 2.8121 (1987; note - free market rate 155 (January 1993)


Sudan - Energy 1993
top of page


Electricity access

Electricity production: 610,000 kW capacity; 905 million kWh produced, 40 kWh per capita (1991)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Sudan - Communication 1993
top of page


Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Sudan - Military 1993
top of page


Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: exchange rate conversion - $339 million, 2.2% of GDP (1989 est.)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Sudan - Transportation 1993
top of page


National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 68
Usable: 56
With permanentsurface runways: 10
With runways over 3659 m: 0
With runways 2440-3659 m: 6
With runways 1220-2439 m: 30

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: refined products 815 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 5,310 km navigable

Merchant marine:
5 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 42,277 GRT/59,588
DWT; includes 3 cargo, 2 roll-on/roll-off


Ports and terminals


Sudan - Transnational issues 1993
top of page


Disputes international:
administrative boundary with Kenya does not coincide with international boundary; administrative boundary with Egypt does not coincide with international boundary creating the "Hala'ib Triangle," a barren area of 20,580 km², the dispute over this area escalated in 1993
October)


Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


Sightseeing Pass


You found a piece of the puzzle

Please click here to complete it