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Thailand
Thailand 

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Thailand - Introduction 1993
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Background: A unified Thai kingdom was established in the mid-14th century; it was known as Siam until 1939. Thailand is the only southeast Asian country never to have been taken over by a European power. A bloodless revolution in 1932 led to a constitutional monarchy. In alliance with Japan during World War II Thailand became a US ally following the conflict.


Thailand - Geography 1993
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Location: Southeast Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, between Burma and Cambodia

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceAsia, Southeast Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World

Area
Total: 514,000 km²
Land: 511,770 km²

Land boundaries: total 4,863 km, Burma 1,800 km, Cambodia 803 km, Laos 1,754 km, Malaysia 506 km

Coastline: 3,219 km
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Maritime claims

Climate:
tropical; rainy, warm, cloudy southwest monsoon (mid-May to
September); dry, cool northeast monsoon (November to mid-March); southern isthmus always hot and humid


Terrain: central plain; eastern plateau (Khorat; mountains elsewhere

Elevation

Natural resources: tin, rubber, natural gas, tungsten, tantalum, timber, lead, fish, gypsum, lignite, fluorite
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 34%
Meadows and pastures: 1%
Forest and woodland: 30%
Other: 31%

Irrigated land: 42,300 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Thailand - People 1993
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Population: 58,722,437 (July 1993 est.)
Growth rate: 1.36% (1993 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Thai (singular and plural)
Adjective: Thai

Ethnic groups: Thai 75%, Chinese 14%, other 11%

Languages: Thai, English the secondary language of the elite, ethnic and regional dialects

Religions: Buddhism 95%, Muslim 3.8%, Christianity 0.5%, Hinduism 0.1%, other 0.6% (1991)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.36% (1993 est.)

Birth rate: 19.97 births/1000 population (1993 est.)

Death rate: 6.33 deaths/1000 population (1993 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1993 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: air and water pollution; land subsidence in Bangkok area
Current issues note: controls only land route from Asia to Malaysia and Singapore

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 38.5 deaths/1000 live births (1993 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 68.28 years
Male: 65.05 years
Female: 71.66 years (1993 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.16 children born/woman (1993 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
Total population: 93%
Male: 96%
Female: 90%
By occupation: agriculture 62%, industry 13%, commerce 11%, services (including government) 14% (1989 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Thailand - Government 1993
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Country name
Conventional long form: Kingdom of Thailand
Conventional short form: Thailand

Government type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Bangkok

Administrative divisions:
73 provinces (changwat, singular and plural);
Ang Thong, Buriram, Chachoengsao, Chai Nat, Chaiyaphum, Changwat Mukdahan,
Chanthaburi, Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Chon Buri, Chumphon, Kalasin, Kamphaeng
Phet, Kanchanaburi, Khon Kaen, Krabi, Krung Thep Mahanakhon, Lampang, Lamphun,
Loei, Lop Buri, Mae Hong Son, Maha Sarakham, Nakhon Nayok, Nakhon Pathom,
Nakhon Phanom, Nakhon Ratchasima, Nakhon Sawan, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Nan,
Narathiwat, Nong Khai, Nonthaburi, Pathum Thani, Pattani, Phangnga,
Phatthalung, Phayao, Phetchabun, Phetchaburi, Phichit, Phitsanulok, Phra
Nakhon Si Ayutthaya, Phrae, Phuket, Prachin Buri, Prachuap Khiri Khan, Ranong,
Ratchaburi, Rayong, Roi Et, Sakon Nakhon, Samut Prakan, Samut Sakhon, Samut
Songkhram, Sara Buri, Satun, Sing Buri, Sisaket, Songkhla, Sukhothai, Suphan
Buri, Surat Thani, Surin, Tak, Trang, Trat, Ubon Ratchathani, Udon Thani,
Uthai Thani, Uttaradit, Yala, Yasothon


Dependent areas

Independence: 1238 (traditional founding date; never colonized)

National holiday: Birthday of His Majesty the King, 5 December (1927)

Constitution: 22 December 1978; new constitution approved 7 December 1991; amended 10 June 1992

Legal system:
based on civil law system, with influences of common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; martial law in effect since 23
February 1991 military coup


International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch: monarch, prime minister, four deputy prime ministers, Council of Ministers (cabinet), Privy Council

Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly (Rathasatha) consists of an upper house or Senate (Vuthisatha) and a lower house or House of Representatives (Saphaphoothan-Rajsadhorn)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Sarndika)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation:
APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO,
ITU, LORCS, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNTAC, UPU, WCL,
WHO, WIPO, WMO


Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador-designate PHIRAPHONG Kasemsi
In the us chancery: 2,300 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: (202) 483-7,200
In the us consulates general: Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador David F. LAMBERTSON
From the us embassy: 95 Wireless Road, Bangkok
From the us mailing address: APO AP 96,546
From the us telephone: 66 (2) 252-5,040
From the us fax: 66 (2) 254-2,990
From the us consulate general: Chiang Mai
From the us consulates: Songkhla, Udorn

Flag descriptionflag of Thailand: five horizontal bands of red (top), white, blue (double width), white, and red

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Thailand - Economy 1993
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Economy overview: Thailand's economy recovered rapidly from the political unrest in May 1992 to post an impressive 7% growth rate for the year. Thailand, one of the more advanced developing countries in Asia, depends on exports of manufactures and the development of the service sector to fuel the country's rapid growth. The trade and current account deficits fell in 1992; much of Thailand's recent imports have been for capital equipment suggesting that the export sector is poised for further growth. With foreign investment slowing, years - is pledged to continue Bangkok's probusiness policies, and the return of a democratically elected government has improved business confidence. Nevertheless, CHUAN must overcome divisions within his ruling coalition to complete much needed infrastructure development programs if Thailand is to remain an attractive place for business investment. Over the longer-term, Bangkok must produce more college graduates with technical training and upgrade workers' skills to continue its rapid economic development.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 7% (1992 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 12% of GDP and 60% of labor force; leading producer and exporter of rice and cassava (tapioca; other crops - rubber, corn, sugarcane, coconuts, soybeans; except for wheat, self-sufficient in food

Industries: tourism is the largest source of foreign exchange; textiles and garments, agricultural processing, beverages, tobacco, cement, light manufacturing, such as jewelry; electric appliances and components, integrated circuits, furniture, plastics; world's second-largest tungsten producer and third-largest tin producer

Industrial production growth rate:
growth rate 18% (1990); accounts for about 26% of
GDP


Labor force
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 4.7% (1992 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $21.36 billion; expenditures $22.40 billion, including capital expenditures of $6.24 billion (FY93 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $32.9 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
Commodoties: machinery and manufactures 76.9%, agricultural products 14.9%, fisheries products 5.9% (1992)
Partners: US 21.6%, Japan 18.0%, Singapore 8.7%, Hong Kong 4.8%, Germany 4.4%, Netherlands 4.2%, UK 3.4%, Malaysia, France, China (1992 est.)

Imports: $41.5 billion (c.i.f., 1992)
Commodoties: capital goods 41.4%, intermediate goods and raw materials 32.8%, consumer goods 10.4%, oil 8.2%
Partners: Japan 29.3%, US 11.4%, Singapore 7.6%, Taiwan 5.5%, Germany 5.4%, South Korea 4.6%, Malaysia 4.2%, China 3.3%, Hong Kong 3.3%, UK (1992 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: baht (B) per US$1 - 25.280 (April 1993), 25.400 (1992), 25.517 (1991), 25.585 (1990), 25.702 (1989), 25.294 (1988)


Thailand - Energy 1993
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 10,000,000 kW capacity; 43,750 million kWh produced, 760 kWh per capita (1992)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Thailand - Communication 1993
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Thailand - Military 1993
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp:
exchange rate conversion - $2.6 billion, about 2% of
GNP (FY92/93 est.)


Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Thailand - Transportation 1993
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 106
Usable: 95
With permanentsurface runways: 51
With runways over 3659 m: 1
With runways 2440-3659 m: 14
With runways 1220-2439 m: 28

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: natural gas 350 km, petroleum products 67 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 3,999 km principal waterways; 3,701 km with navigable depths of 0.9 m or more throughout the year; numerous minor waterways navigable by shallow-draft native craft

Merchant marine:
169 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 752,055
GRT/1,166,136 DWT; includes 1 short-sea passenger, 91 cargo, 12 container, 40 oil tanker, 9 liquefied gas, 2 chemical tanker, 5 bulk, 6 refrigerated cargo, 2 combination bulk, 1 passenger


Ports and terminals


Thailand - Transnational issues 1993
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Disputes international: boundary dispute with Laos; unresolved maritime boundary with Vietnam

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: a minor producer, major illicit trafficker of heroin, particularly from Burma and Laos, and cannabis for the international drug been affected by eradication efforts; also a major drug money laundering center


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