Tunisia 1993Tunisia

 Tunisia | | | | | |
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Tunisia
Tunisia 

Turbopass


Tunisia - Introduction 1993
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Background: Following independence from France in 1956 President Habib BOURGIUBA established a strict one-party state. He dominated the country for 31 years repressing Islamic fundamentalism and establishing rights for women unmatched by any other Arab nation. In recent years Tunisia has taken a moderate non-aligned stance in its foreign relations. Domestically it has sought to diffuse rising pressure for a more open political society.


Tunisia - Geography 1993
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Location: Northern Africa, 144 km from Italy across the Strait of Sicily, between Algeria and Libya

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceAfrica, Standard Time Zones of the World

Area
Total: 163,610 km²
Land: 155,360 km²

Land boundaries: total 1,424 km, Algeria 965 km, Libya 459 km
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Coastline

Maritime claims

Climate: temperate in north with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers; desert in south

Terrain: mountains in north; hot, dry central plain; semiarid south merges into the Sahara

Elevation

Natural resources: petroleum, phosphates, iron ore, lead, zinc, salt
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 20%
Permanent crops: 10%
Meadows and pastures: 19%
Forest and woodland: 4%
Other: 47%

Irrigated land: 2,750 km² (1989)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Tunisia - People 1993
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Population: 8,570,868 (July 1993 est.)
Growth rate: 1.84% (1993 est.)

Nationality: noun: Tunisian(s)

Ethnic groups: Arab-Berber 98%, European 1%, Jewish less than 1%

Languages: Arabic (official and one of the languages of commerce), French (commerce)

Religions: Muslim 98%, Christian 1%, Jewish 1%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.84% (1993 est.)

Birth rate: 24.24 births/1000 population (1993 est.)

Death rate: 5.04 deaths/1000 population (1993 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.79 migrant(s)/1000 population (1993 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
Current issues note: strategic location in central Mediterranean

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 35.9 deaths/1000 live births (1993 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 72.54 years
Male: 70.55 years
Female: 74.62 years (1993 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.02 children born/woman (1993 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
Total population: 65%
Male: 74%
Female: 56%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Tunisia - Government 1993
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Tunisia
Conventional short form: Tunisia
Local long form: Al Jumhuriyah at Tunisiyah
Local short form: Tunis

Government type: republic

Capital: Tunis

Administrative divisions:
23 governorates; Beja, Ben Arous, Bizerte,
Gabes, Gafsa, Jendouba, Kairouan, Kasserine, Kebili, L'Ariana, Le Kef, Mahdia,
Medenine, Monastir, Nabeul, Sfax, Sidi Bou Zid, Siliana, Sousse, Tataouine,
Tozeur, Tunis, Zaghouan


Dependent areas

Independence: 20 March 1956 (from France)

National holiday: National Day, 20 March (1956)

Constitution: 1 June 1959

Legal system: based on French civil law system and Islamic law; some judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court in joint session

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal

Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral Chamber of Deputies (Majlis al-Nuwaab)

Judicial branch: Court of Cassation (Cour de Cassation)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation:
ABEDA, ACCT, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77,
GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, NAM, OAPEC (withdrew from active membership in 1986), OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNHCR, UNIDO, UNPROFOR, UNTAC, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Ismail KHELIL
In the us chancery: 1515 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,005
In the us telephone: (202) 862-1850
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador John T. McCARTHY
From the us embassy: 144 Avenue de la Liberte, 1002 Tunis-Belvedere
From the us mailing address: use embassy street address
From the us telephone: 216 (1) 782-566
From the us fax: 216 (1) 789-719

Flag descriptionflag of Tunisia: red with a white disk in the center bearing a red crescent nearly encircling a red five-pointed star; the crescent and star are traditional symbols of Islam

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Tunisia - Economy 1993
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Economy overview: The economy depends primarily on petroleum, phosphates, tourism, and exports of light manufactures. Following two years of drought-induced unemployment has eroded popular support for the government, however, and forced Tunis to slow the pace of economic reform. Nonetheless, the government appears committed to implementing its IMF-supported structural adjustment program and to servicing its foreign debt.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 8% (1992 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 15% of GDP and one-third of labor force; output subject to severe fluctuations because of frequent droughts; export crops - olives, dates, oranges, almonds; other products - grain, sugar beets, wine grapes, poultry, beef, dairy; not self-sufficient in food; fish catch of 99,200 metric tons (1987)

Industries: petroleum, mining (particularly phosphate and iron ore), tourism, textiles, footwear, food, beverages

Industrial production growth rate:
growth rate 5% (1989); accounts for about 25% of
GDP, including petroleum


Labor force: 2.25 million
By occupation agriculture: 32%
Note: shortage of skilled labor
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 15.7% (1992)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $4.3 billion; expenditures $5.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1993 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $3.7 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
Commodoties: hydrocarbons, agricultural products, phosphates and chemicals
Partners: EC countries 74%, Middle East 11%, US 2%, Turkey, former USSR republics

Imports: $6.1 billion (c.i.f., 1992)
Commodoties: industrial goods and equipment 57%, hydrocarbons 13%, food 12%, consumer goods
Partners:
EC countries 67%, US 6%, Canada, Japan, Switzerland, Turkey,
Algeria


Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates


Tunisia - Energy 1993
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 1,545,000 kW capacity; 5,096 million kWh produced, 600 kWh per capita (1992)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Tunisia - Communication 1993
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Tunisia - Military 1993
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: exchange rate conversion - $618 million, 3.7% of GDP (1993 est.)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Tunisia - Transportation 1993
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 29
Usable: 26
With permanentsurface runways: 13
With runways over 3659 m: 0
With runways 2440-3659 m: 7
With runways 1220-2439 m: 7

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: crude oil 797 km, petroleum products 86 km, natural gas 742 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways

Merchant marine:
22 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 161,661 GRT/221,959
DWT; includes 1 short-sea passenger, 4 cargo, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 2 oil tanker, 6 chemical tanker, 1 liquefied gas, 6 bulk


Ports and terminals


Tunisia - Transnational issues 1993
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Disputes international: maritime boundary dispute with Libya; land boundary disputes with Algeria under discussion

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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