Statistical information Albania 1993Albania

Map of Albania | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Albania in the World
Albania in the World

Austrian Airlines


Albania - Introduction 1993
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Background: In 1990 Albania ended 44 years of xenophobic communist rule and established a multiparty democracy. The transition has proven difficult as corrupt governments have tried to deal with severe unemployment and widespread gangsterism.


Albania - Geography 1993
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Location:
Southeastern Europe, on the Balkan Peninsula between Serbia and
Montenegro and Greece


Geographic coordinates

Map reference:
Africa, Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe, Standard
Time Zones of the World


Area
Total: total: 28,750 km²

Land boundaries:
total 720 km, Greece 282 km, Macedonia 151 km, Serbia and
Montenegro 287 km (114 km with Serbia, 173 km with Montenegro)


Coastline: 362 km
Continental shelf: not specified
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Maritime claims

Climate: mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry summers; interior is cooler and wetter

Terrain: mostly mountains and hills; small plains along coast

Elevation

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, timber, nickel
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 21%
Permanent crops: 4%
Meadows and pastures: 15%
Forest and woodland: 38%
Other: 22%

Irrigated land: 4,230 km² (1989)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Albania - People 1993
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Population: 3,333,839 (July 1993 est.)
Growth rate: 1.21% (1993 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Albanian(s)
Adjective: Albanian

Ethnic groups:
Albanian 90%, Greeks 8%, other 2% (Vlachs, Gypsies,
Serbs, and Bulgarians) (1989 est.)


Languages: Albanian (Tosk is the official dialect), Greek

Religions: Muslim 70%, Greek Orthodox 20%, Roman Catholic 10%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.21% (1993 est.)

Birth rate: 23.24 births/1000 population (1993 est.)

Death rate: 5.45 deaths/1000 population (1993 est.)

Net migration rate: -5.67 migrant(s)/1000 population (1993 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: subject to destructive earthquakes; tsunami occur along southwestern coast
Current issues note:
strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links Adriatic Sea to
Ionian Sea and Mediterranean Sea)


Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 31.8 deaths/1000 live births (1993 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Male: 70.01 years
Female: 76.21 years (1993 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.85 children born/woman (1993 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 9 and over can read and write (1955)
Total population: 72%
Male: 80%
Female: 63%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Albania - Government 1993
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Albania
Conventional short form: Albania
Local long form: Republika e Shqiperise
Local short form: Shqiperia
Former: People's Socialist Republic of Albania

Government type: nascent democracy

Capital: Tirane

Administrative divisions:
26 districts (rrethe, singular - rreth); Berat,
Dibre, Durres, Elbasan, Fier, Gjirokaster, Gramsh, Kolonje, Korce, Kruje,
Kukes, Lezhe, Librazhd, Lushnje, Mat, Mirdite, Permet, Pogradec, Puke,
Sarande, Shkoder, Skrapar, Tepelene, Tirane, Tropoje, Vlore


Dependent areas

Independence

National holiday: Liberation Day, 29 November (1944)

Constitution: an interim basic law was approved by the People's Assembly on 29 April 1991; a new constitution was to be drafted for adoption in 1992, but is still in process

Legal system: has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age, universal and compulsory

Executive branch: president, prime minister of the Council of Ministers, two deputy prime ministers of the Council of Ministers

Legislative branch: unicameral People's Assembly (Kuvendi Popullor)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation:
BSEC, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
IMF, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, NACC, OIC, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO


Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Roland BIMO
In the us chancery: 1511 K Street, NW, Washington, DC
In the us telephone: (202) 223-4,942
In the us fax: (202) 223-4,950
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador William E. RYERSON
From the us embassy: Rruga Labinoti 103, room 2,921, Tirane
From the us telephone: 355-42-32,875, 33,520
From the us fax: 355-42-32,222

Flag descriptionflag of Albania: red with a black two-headed eagle in the center

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Albania - Economy 1993
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Economy overview: The Albanian economy, already providing the lowest standard of living in Europe, contracted sharply in 1991, with most industries producing at only a fraction of past levels and an unemployment rate estimated at 40%. For over 40 years, the Stalinist-type economy operated on the principle of central planning and state ownership of the means of production. Fitful economic reforms begun during 1991, including the liberalization of prices and trade, the privatization of shops and transport, and land reform, were crippled by widespread civil disorder. Following its overwhelming victory in the 22 March 1992 elections, the new Democratic government announced a program of shock therapy to stabilize the economy and establish a market economy. In an effort to expand international ties, Tirane has reestablished diplomatic relations with the major republics of the former Soviet Union and the US and has joined the IMF and the World Bank. The Albanians have also passed legislation allowing foreign investment, but not foreign ownership of real estate. Albania possesses considerable mineral resources and, until 1990, was largely self-sufficient in food; however, the breakup of cooperative farms in 1991 and general economic decline forced Albania to rely on foreign aid to maintain adequate supplies. In 1992 the government tightened budgetary contols leading to another drop in domestic output. The agricultural sector is steadily gaining from the privatization process. Low domestic output is supplemented by remittances from the 200,000 Albanians working abroad.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: -10% (1992 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: arable land: per capita among lowest in Europe; over 60% of arable land: now in private hands; one-half of work force engaged in farming; wide range of temperate-zone crops and livestock

Industries: food processing, textiles and clothing, lumber, oil, cement, chemicals, mining, basic metals, hydropower

Industrial production growth rate: growth rate -55% (1991 est.)

Labor force: 1.5 million (1987)
By occupation agriculture: 60%
By occupation industry and commerce: 40% (1986)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 40% (1992 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $1.1 billion; expenditures $1.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $70 million (1991 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $45 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
Commodoties: asphalt, metals and metallic ores, electricity, crude oil, vegetables, fruits, tobacco
Partners:
Italy, Macedonia, Germany, Greece, Czechoslovakia, Poland,
Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary


Imports: $120 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
Commodoties: machinery, consumer goods, grains
Partners:
Italy, Macedonia, Germany, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Poland,
Hungary, Bulgaria, Greece


Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: leke (L) per US$1 - 97 (January 1993), 50 (January 1992), 25 (September 1991)


Albania - Energy 1993
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 1,690,000 kW capacity; 5,000 million kWh produced, 1,520 kWh per capita (1992)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Albania - Communication 1993
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Albania - Military 1993
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: 215 million leke, NA% of GNP (1993 est.), note - conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate could produce misleading results

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Albania - Transportation 1993
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 12
Usable: 10
With permanentsurface runways: 3
With runways over 3659 m: 0
With runways 2440-3659 m: 6
With runways 1220-2439 m: 4 stations - 13 AM, 1 TV; 514,000 radios, 255,000 TVs (1987 est.)

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: crude oil 145 km; petroleum products 55 km; natural gas 64 km (1991)

Railways

Roadways

Waterways:
43 km plus Albanian sections of Lake Scutari, Lake
Ohrid, and Lake Prespa (1990)


Merchant marine:
11 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 52,967
GRT/76,887 DWT


Ports and terminals


Albania - Transnational issues 1993
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Disputes international:
Kosovo question with Serbia and Montenegro;
Northern Epirus question with Greece


Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan route


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