Statistical information Egypt 1993Egypt

Map of Egypt | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Egypt in the World
Egypt in the World

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Egypt - Introduction 1993
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Background: One of the four great ancient civilizations, Egypt, ruled by powerful pharaohs, bequeathed to Western civilization numerous advances in technology, science, and the arts. For the last two millennia, however, Egypt has served a series of foreign masters_Persians, Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, Arabs, Turks, and the British. Formal independence came in 1922, and the remnants of British control ended after World War II. The completion of the Aswan High Dam in 1981 altered the time-honored place of the Nile River in the agriculture and ecology of Egypt. A rapidly growing population will stress Egyptian society and resources as it enters the new millenium.


Egypt - Geography 1993
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Location:
Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea and the Red
Sea, between Sudan and Libya


Geographic coordinates

Map referenceAfrica, Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World

Area
Total: 1,001,450 km²
Land: 995,450 km²

Land boundaries: total 2,689 km, Gaza Strip 11 km, Israel 255 km, Libya 1,150 km, Sudan 1,273 km

Coastline: 2,450 km
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Continental shelf: 200 m depth or to depth of exploitation
Exclusive economic zone: not specified
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Maritime claims

Climate: desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters

Terrain: vast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta

Elevation

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, zinc
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 3%
Meadows and pastures: 0%
Forest and woodland: 0%
Other: 95%

Irrigated land: 25,850 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Egypt - People 1993
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Population: 59,585,529 (July 1993 est.)
Growth rate: 2.3% (1993 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Egyptian(s)
Adjective: Egyptian

Ethnic groups: Eastern Hamitic stock 90%, Greek, Italian, Syro-Lebanese 10%

Languages: Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by

Religions: Muslim (mostly Sunni) 94% (official estimate), Coptic Christian and other 6% (official estimate)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 2.3% (1993 est.)

Birth rate: 33 births/1000 population (1993 est.)

Death rate: 9 deaths/1000 population (1993 est.)

Net migration rate: NEGL

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: Nile is only perennial water source; increasing soil salinization below Aswan High Dam; hot, driving windstorm called khamsin occurs in spring; water pollution; desertification
Current issues note: controls Sinai Peninsula, only land bridge between Africa and remainder of Eastern Hemisphere; controls Suez Canal, shortest sea link between Indian Ocean and Mediterranean; size and juxtaposition to Israel establish its major role in Middle Eastern geopolitics

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 78.3 deaths/1000 live births (1993 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 60.46 years
Male: 58.61 years
Female: 62.41 years (1993 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.35 children born/woman (1993 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
Total population: 48%
Male: 63%
Female: 34%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Egypt - Government 1993
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Country name
Conventional long form: Arab Republic of Egypt
Conventional short form: Egypt
Local long form: Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah
Local short form: none
Former: United Arab Republic (with Syria)

Government type: republic

Capital: Cairo

Administrative divisions:
26 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr al Ahmar, Al Buhayrah, Al Fayyum, Al
Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah, Al Isma'iliyah, Al Jizah, Al Minufiyah, Al Minya,
Al Qahirah, Al Qalyubiyah, Al Wadi al Jadid, Ash Sharqiyah, As Suways, Aswan,
Asyu't, Bani Suwayf, Bur Sa'id, Dumyat, Janub Sina, Kafr ash Shaykh, Matruh,
Qina, Shamal Sina, Suhaj


Dependent areas

Independence: 28 February 1922 (from UK)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 23 July (1952)

Constitution: 11 September 1971

Legal system: based on English common law, Islamic law, and Napoleonic codes; judicial review by Supreme Court and Council of State (oversees validity of administrative decisions; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral People's Assembly (Majlis al-Cha'b; note - there is an Advisory Council (Majlis al-Shura) that functions in a consultative role

Judicial branch: Supreme Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation:
ABEDA, ACC, ACCT (associate), AfDB, AFESD, AG (observer), AL,
AMF, CAEU, CCC, EBRD, ECA, ESCWA, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, GATT, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OAU,
OIC, PCA, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMOZ, UNOSOM, UNPROFOR, UPU,
UNRWA, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Robert PELLETREAU
In the us chancery: 2,310 Decatur Place NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: 20 (2) 355-7,371
In the us consulates general: Chicago, Houston, New York, and San Francisco
In the us embassy: Lazougi Street, Garden City, Cairo
In the us mailing address: APO AE 9,839
In the us fax: 20 (2) 355-7,375
In the us consulate general: Alexandria

Flag descriptionflag of Egypt: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with the national emblem (a shield superimposed on a golden eagle facing the hoist side above a scroll bearing the name of the country in Arabic) centered in the white band; similar to the flag of Yemen, which has a plain white band; also similar to the flag of Syria that has two green stars and to the flag of Iraq, which has three green stars (plus an Arabic inscription) in a horizontal line centered in the white band

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Egypt - Economy 1993
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Economy overview: Egypt has one of the largest public sectors of all the Third World economies, most industrial plants being owned by the government. Overregulation holds back technical modernization and foreign investment. Even so, the economy grew rapidly during the late 1970s and early 1980s, but in 1986 the collapse of world oil prices and an increasingly heavy burden of debt servicing led Egypt to begin negotiations with the IMF for balance-of-payments support. Egypt's first IMF standby arrangement concluded in mid-1987 was suspended in early 1988 because of the government's failure to adopt promised reforms. Egypt signed a follow-on program with the IMF and also negotiated a structural adjustment loan with the World Bank in 1991. In 1991-92 the government made solid progress on administrative reforms such as liberalizing exchange and interest rates but resisted implementing major structural reforms like streamlining the public sector. As a result, the economy has not gained momentum and unemployment has become a growing problem. In 1992-93 tourism has plunged 20% or so because of sporadic attacks by Islamic extremists on tourist groups. President MUBARAK has cited population growth as the main cause of the country's economic troubles. The addition of about 1.4 million people a year to the already huge population of 60 million exerts enormous pressure on the 5% of the land area available for agriculture.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 2.1% (1992 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 20% of GDP and employs more than one-third of labor force; dependent on irrigation water from the Nile; world's sixth-largest cotton exporter; other crops produced include rice, corn, wheat, beans, fruit, vegetables; not self-sufficient in food for a rapidly expanding population; livestock - cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats; annual fish catch about 140,000 metric tons

Industries: textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals, petroleum, construction, cement, metals

Industrial production growth rate:
growth rate 7.3% (FY89 est.); accounts for 18% of
GDP


Labor force: 15 million (1989 est.)
By occupation government public sector enterprises and armed forces: 36%
By occupation agriculture: 34%
By occupation privately owned service and manufacturing enterprises: 20% (1984)
Note: shortageofskilledlabor;2,500,000 Egyptians work abroad; mostly in Saudi Arabia and the Gulf Arab states (1988 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 20% (1992 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $12.6 billion; expenditures $15.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $4 billion (FY92 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $3.6 billion (f.o.b., FY92 est.)
Partners: EC, Eastern Europe, US, Japan
Commodoties: machinery and equipment, foods, fertilizers, wood products, durable consumer goods, capital goods

Imports: $10.0 billion (c.i.f., FY92 est.)
Partners: EC, US, Japan, Eastern Europe

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Egyptian pounds (#E) per US$1 - 3.345 (November 1992), 2.7072 (1990), 2.5171 (1989), 2.2233 (1988), 1.5183 (1987)


Egypt - Energy 1993
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 14,175,000 kW capacity; 47,000 million kWh produced, 830 kWh per capita (1992)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Egypt - Communication 1993
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Egypt - Military 1993
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: exchange rate conversion - $2.05 billion, 5% of GDP (FY92/93)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Egypt - Transportation 1993
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 92
Usable: 82
With permanentsurface runways: 66
With runways over 3659 m: 2
With runways 2440-3659 m: 44
With runways 1220-2439 m: 24

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: crude oil 1,171 km; petroleum products 596 km; natural gas 460

Railways

Roadways

Waterways:
3,500 km (including the Nile, Lake Nasser,
Alexandria-Cairo Waterway, and numerous smaller canals in the delta); Suez
Canal, 193.5 km long (including approaches), used by oceangoing vessels drawing up to 16.1 meters of water


Merchant marine:
168 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,097,707
GRT/1,592,885 DWT; includes 25 passenger, 6 short-sea passenger, 2 passenger-cargo, 88 cargo, 3 refrigerated cargo, 14 roll-on/roll-off, 13 oil tanker, 16 bulk, 1 container


Ports and terminals


Egypt - Transnational issues 1993
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Disputes international: administrative boundary with Sudan does not coincide with international boundary creating the "Hala'ib Triangle," a barren area of 20,580 km², the dispute over this area escalated in 1993

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs:
a transit point for Southwest Asian and Southeast Asian heroin and opium moving to Europe and the US; popular transit stop for
Nigerian couriers; large domestic consumption of hashish and heroin from
Lebanon and Syria



Sesame


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