Statistical information Hungary 1993Hungary

Map of Hungary | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Hungary in the World
Hungary in the World

Hungary - Introduction 1993
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Background: After World War II Hungary became part of Soviet-dominated Eastern Europe, and its government and economy were refashioned on the communist model. Increased nationalist opposition, which culminated in the government's announcement of withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact in 1956, led to massive military intervention by Moscow and the swift crushing of the revolt. In the more open GORBACHEV years, Hungary led the movement to dissolve the Warsaw Pact and steadily moved toward multiparty democracy and a market-oriented economy. Following the collapse of the USSR in 1991, Hungary is developing close political and economic relations with western Europe.

Hungary - Geography 1993
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Location: Eastern Europe, between Slovakia and Romania

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceEthnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe

Total: 93,030 km²
Land: 92,340 km²

Land boundaries: total 1,952 km, Austria 366 km, Croatia 292 km, Romania 443 km, Serbia and Montenegro 151 km (all with Serbia), Slovakia 515 km,

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

Climate: temperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling plains


Natural resources: bauxite, coal, natural gas, fertile soils
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 50.7%
Permanent crops: 6.1%
Meadows and pastures: 12.6%
Forest and woodland: 18.3%
Other: 12.3%

Irrigated land: 1,750 km² (1989)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards


Hungary - People 1993
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Population: 10,324,018 (July 1993 est.)
Growth rate: -0.07% (1993 est.)


Ethnic groups: Hungarian 89.9%, Gypsy 4%, German 2.6%, Serb 2%, Slovak 0.8%, Romanian 0.7%

Languages: Hungarian 98.2%, other 1.8%

Religions: Roman Catholic 67.5%, Calvinist 20%, Lutheran 5%, atheist and other 7.5%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: -0.07% (1993 est.)

Birth rate: 12.33 births/1000 population (1993 est.)

Death rate: 13.02 deaths/1000 population (1993 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1993 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: levees are common along many streams, but flooding occurs almost every year
Current issues note:
landlocked; strategic location astride main land routes between
Western Europe and Balkan Peninsula as well as between Ukraine and
Mediterranean basin

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 13.1 deaths/1000 live births (1993 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 70.86 years
Male: 66.81 years
Female: 75.12 years (1993 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.83 children born/woman (1993 est.)
Noun: Hungarian(s)
Adjective: Hungarian

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
Total population: 99%
Male: 99%
Female: 98%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Hungary - Government 1993
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Hungary
Conventional short form: Hungary
Local long form: Magyar Koztarsasag
Local short form: Magyarorszag

Government type: republic

Capital: Budapest

Administrative divisions:
38 counties (megyek, singular - megye) and 1 capital city* (fovaros); Bacs-Kiskun, Baranya, Bekes, Bekescsaba,
Borsod-Abauj-Zemplen, Budapest*, Csongrad, Debrecen, Dunaujvaros, Eger, Fejer,
Gyor, Gyor-Moson-Sopron, Hajdu-Bihar, Heves, Hodmezovasarhely,
Jasz-Nagykun-Szolnok, Kaposvar, Kecskemet, Komarom-Esztergom, Miskolc,
Nagykanizsa, Nograd, Nyiregyhaza, Pecs, Pest, Somogy, Sopron,
Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg, Szeged, Szekesfehervar, Szolnok, Szombathely,
Tatabanya, Tolna, Vas, Veszprem, Zala, Zalaegerszeg

Dependent areas

Independence: 1001 (unification by King Stephen I)

National holiday: October 23 (1956) (commemorates the Hungarian uprising)

Constitution: 18 August 1949, effective 20 August 1949, revised 19 April 1972; 18 October 1989 revision ensured legal rights for individuals and constitutional checks on the authority of the prime minister and also established the principle of parliamentary oversight

Legal system

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: president, prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Orszaggyules)

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation:
Australian Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CEI, CERN, CSCE, EBRD, ECE,

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Charles H. THOMAS
In the us chancery: 3,910 Shoemaker Street NW, Washington DC 20,008
In the us telephone: 36 (1) 112-6,450
In the us fax: 36 (1) 132-8,934
In the us consulate general: New York
In the us embassy: V. Szabadsag Ter 12, Budapest
In the us mailing address: Am Embassy, Unit 25,402, APO AE 9,213-5,270

Flag descriptionflag of Hungary: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and green

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Hungary - Economy 1993
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Economy overview: Hungary is in the midst of a difficult transition from a command to a market economy. Agriculture is an important sector, providing sizable export earnings and meeting domestic food needs. Industry accounts for about 40% of GDP and 30% of employment. Hungary claims that less than 25% of foreign trade is now with former CEMA countries, while about 70% is with OECD members. Hungary's economic reform programs during the Communist era gave it a head start in creating a market economy and attracting foreign investment. In 1991, Hungary received 60% of all foreign investment in Eastern Europe, and in 1992 received the largest single share. The growing private sector accounts for about one-third of national output according to unofficial estimates. Privatization of state enterprises is progressing, although excessive red tape, bureaucratic oversight, and uncertainties about pricing have slowed the process. Escalating unemployment and high rates of inflation may impede efforts to speed up privatization and budget reform, while Hungary's heavy foreign debt will make the government reluctant to introduce full convertibility of the forint before 1994 and to rein in inflation. The government is projecting an end to the 5-year recession in 1993, and GDP is forecast to grow 0%-3%.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: -5% (1992 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: including forestry, accounts for 15% of GDP and 16% of employment; highly diversified crop and livestock farming; principal crops - wheat, corn, sunflowers, potatoes, sugar beets; livestock - hogs, cattle, poultry, dairy products; self-sufficient in food output

Industries: mining, metallurgy, construction materials, processed foods, textiles, chemicals (especially pharmaceuticals), buses, automobiles

Industrial production growth rate: growth rate -10% (1992)

Labor force: 5.4 million
By occupation services trade government andother: 44.8%
By occupation industry: 29.7%
By occupation agriculture: 16.1%
By occupation construction: 7.0% (1991)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 12.3% (1992)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $13.2 billion; expenditures $15.4 billion, including capital expenditures $NA (1993 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $10.9 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
Commodoties: raw materials, semi-finished goods, chemicals 35.5%, machinery 13.5%, light industry 23.3%, food and agricultural 24.8%, fuels and energy 2.8%
Partners: OECD 70.7%, (EC 50.1%, EFTA 15.0%), LDCs 5.1%, former CEMA members 23.2%, others 1.0% (1991)

Imports: $11.7 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.) 6.3%
Partners: OECD 71.0%, (EC 45.4%, EFTA 20.0%), LDCs 3.9%, former CEMA members 23.9%, others 1.2% (1991)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: forints per US$1 - 83.97 (December 1992), 78.99 (1992), 74.74 (1991), 63.21 (1990), 59.07 (1989), 50.41 (1988)

Hungary - Energy 1993
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 7,200,000 kW capacity; 30,000 million kWh produced, 3,000 kWh per capita (1992)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Hungary - Communication 1993
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Hungary - Military 1993
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: 66.5 billion forints, NA% of GNP (1993 est.), note - conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate could produce misleading results

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Hungary - Transportation 1993
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 92
With permanentsurface runways: 25
With runways over 3659 m: 1
With runways 2440-3659 m: 20
With runways 1220-2439 m: 28

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: crude oil 1,204 km; natural gas 4,387 km (1991)



Waterways: 1,622 km (1988)

Merchant marine: 12 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) and 1 bulk totaling 83,091 GRT/115,950 DWT

Ports and terminals

Hungary - Transnational issues 1993
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Disputes international: Gabcikovo Dam dispute with Slovakia; Vojvodina taken from Hungary and awarded to the former Yugoslavia by treaty of Trianon in 1920

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southeast Asia heroin transiting the Balkan route

Crystal Travel

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