Statistical information Japan 1993Japan

Map of Japan | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Japan in the World
Japan in the World


Japan - Introduction 1993
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Background: While retaining its time-honored culture Japan rapidly absorbed Western technology during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. After its devastating defeat in World War II Japan recovered to become the second most powerful economy in the world and a staunch ally of the US. While the emperor retains his throne as a symbol of national unity actual power rests in networks of powerful politicians bureaucrats and business executives.

Japan - Geography 1993
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Location: Northeast Asia, off the southeast coast of Russia and east of the Korean peninsula

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceAsia, Standard Time Zones of the World

Total: 377,835 km²
Land: 374,744 km²

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 29,751 km
Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Maritime claims

Climate: varies from tropical in south to cool temperate in north

Terrain: mostly rugged and mountainous


Natural resources: negligible mineral resources, fish
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 13%
Permanent crops: 1%
Meadows and pastures: 1%
Forest and woodland: 67%
Other: 18%

Irrigated land: 28,680 km² (1989)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards


Japan - People 1993
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Growth rate: 0.32% (1993 est.)

Noun: Japanese (singular and plural)
Adjective: Japanese

Ethnic groups: Japanese 99.4%, other 0.6% (mostly Korean)

Languages: Japanese

Religions: Shinto 95.8%, Buddhist 76.3%, Christian 1.4%, other 12%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 0.32% (1993 est.)

Birth rate: 10.31 births/1000 population (1993 est.)

Death rate: 7.17 deaths/1000 population (1993 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1993 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: many dormant and some active volcanoes; about 1,500 seismic occurrences (mostly tremors) every year; subject to tsunamis
Current issues note: strategic location in northeast Asia

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 4.3 deaths/1000 live births (1993 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 79.18 years
Male: 76.35 years
Female: 82.15 years (1993 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.54 children born/woman (1993 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1970)
Total population: 99%
Male: NA%
Female: NA%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Japan - Government 1993
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Country name
Conventional long form: none
Conventional short form: Japan

Government type

Capital: Tokyo

Administrative divisions:
47 prefectures; Aichi, Akita, Aomori, Chiba,
Ehime, Fukui, Fukuoka, Fukushima, Gifu, Gumma, Hiroshima, Hokkaido, Hyogo,
Ibaraki, Ishikawa, Iwate, Kagawa, Kagoshima, Kanagawa, Kochi, Kumamoto, Kyoto,
Mie, Miyagi, Miyazaki, Nagano, Nagasaki, Nara, Niigata, Oita, Okayama,
Okinawa, Osaka, Saga, Saitama, Shiga, Shimane, Shizuoka, Tochigi, Tokushima,
Tokyo, Tottori, Toyama, Wakayama, Yamagata, Yamaguchi, Yamanashi

Dependent areas

Independence: 660 BC (traditional founding by Emperor Jimmu)

National holiday: Birthday of the Emperor, 23 December (1933)

Constitution: 3 May 1947

Legal system: modled after European civil law system with English-American influence; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal

Executive branch: Emperor, prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral Diet (Kokkai) consists of an upper house or House of Councillors (Sangi-in) and a lower house or House of Representatives (Shugi-in)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation:
AfDB, AG (observer), Australia Group, APEC, AsDB, BIS, CCC,
COCOM, CP, CSCE (observer), EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, G-2, G-5, G-7, G-8, G-10, GATT,

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Takakazu KURIYAMA
In the us chancery: 2,520 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: (202) 939-6,700
In the us consulates general:
Agana (Guam), Anchorage, Atlanta, Boston, Chicago,
Honolulu, Houston, Kansas City (Missouri), Los Angeles, New Orleans, New York,
San Francisco, Seattle, and Portland (Oregon)

In the us consulates: Saipan (Northern Mariana Islands)
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Michael H. ARMACOST
From the us embassy: 10-5, Akasaka 1-chome, Minato-ku (107), Tokyo
From the us mailing address: APO AP 96,337-0001
From the us telephone: 81 (3) 3,224-5,000
From the us fax: 81 (3) 3,505-1862
From the us consulates general: Naha (Okinawa), Osaka-Kobe, Sapporo
From the us consulate: Fukuoka

Flag descriptionflag of Japan: white with a large red disk (representing the sun without rays) in the center

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Japan - Economy 1993
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Economy overview: Government-industry cooperation, a strong work ethic, and a comparatively small defense allocation have helped Japan advance with extraordinary rapidity, notably in high-technology fields. Industry, the most important sector of the economy, is heavily dependent on imported raw materials and fuels. Self-sufficient in rice, Japan must import about 50% of its requirements of other grain and fodder crops. Japan maintains one of the world's largest fishing fleets and accounts for nearly 15% of the global catch. Overall economic growth has been spectacular: a 10% average in the 1960s, a 5% average in the 1970s and 1980s. Economic growth slowed markedly in 1992 largely because of contractionary domestic policies intended to wring speculative excesses from the stock and real estate markets. At the same time, the stronger yen and slower global growth are containing export growth. Unemployment and inflation remain low at 2%. Japan continues to run a huge trade surplus - $107 billion in 1992, up nearly 40% from the year earlier - which supports extensive investment in foreign assets. The crowding of its habitable land area and the aging of its population are two major long-run problems.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 1.5% (1992)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for only 2% of GDP; highly subsidized and protected sector, with crop yields among highest in world; principal crops - rice, sugar beets, vegetables, fruit; animal products include pork, poultry, dairy and eggs; about 50% self-sufficient in food production; shortages of wheat, corn, soybeans; world's largest fish catch of 10 million metric tons in 1991

Industries: steel and non-ferrous metallurgy, heavy electrical equipment, construction and mining equipment, motor vehicles and parts, electronic and telecommunication equipment and components, machine tools and automated production systems, locomotives and railroad rolling stock, shipbuilding, chemicals, textiles, food processing

Industrial production growth rate: growth rate -6.0% (1992; accounts for 30% of GDP

Labor force: 63.33 million
By occupation trade and services: 54%
By occupation and construction: 33%
By occupation agriculture forestry and fishing: 7%
By occupation government: 3% (1988)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 2.2% (1992)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $490 billion; expenditures $579 billion, including capital expenditures (public works only) of about $68 billion (FY93)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $339.7 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
Commodoties: manufactures 97% (including machinery 40%, motor vehicles 18%, consumer electronics 10%)
Partners: Southeast Asia 31%, US 29%, Western Europe 23%, Communist countries 4%, Middle East 3%

Imports: $232.7 billion (c.i.f., 1992)
Commodoties: manufactures 44%, fossil fuels 33%, foodstuffs and raw materials 23%
Partners: Southeast Asia 25%, US 22%, Western Europe 17%, Middle East 12%, former Communist countries and China 8%

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: yen (Y) per US$1 - 125.01 (January 1993), 126.65 (1992), 134.71 (1991), 144.79 (1990), 137.96 (1989), 128.15 (1988)

Japan - Energy 1993
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 196,000,000 kW capacity; 835,000 million kWh produced, 6,700 kWh per capita (1992)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Japan - Communication 1993
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Japan - Military 1993
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: exchange rate conversion - $37 billion, 0.94% of GDP (FY93/94 est.)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Japan - Transportation 1993
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 162
Usable: 159
With permanentsurface runways: 132
With runways over 3659 m: 2
With runways 2440-3659 m: 32
With runways 1220-2439 m: 50

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: crude oil 84 km; petroleum products 322 km; natural gas 1,800 km



Waterways: about 1,770 km; seagoing craft ply all coastal inland seas

Merchant marine:
950 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 21,080,149
GRT/32,334,270 DWT; includes 10 passenger, 39 short-sea passenger, 1 passenger cargo, 81 cargo, 43 container, 43 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 87 refrigerated cargo, 97 vehicle carrier, 240 oil tanker, 11 chemical tanker, 39 liquefied gas, 9 combination ore/oil, 2 specialized tanker, 247 bulk, 1 multi-function large load carrier; note - Japan also owns a large flag of convenience fleet, including up to 44% of the total number of ships under the Panamanian flag

Ports and terminals

Japan - Transnational issues 1993
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Disputes international:
Etorofu, Kunashiri, and Shikotan Islands and the
Habomai island group occupied by the Soviet Union in 1945, now administered by
Russia, claimed by Japan; Liancourt Rocks disputed with South Korea;
Senkaku-shoto (Senkaku Islands) claimed by China and Taiwan

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs

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