Statistical information Madagascar 1993Madagascar

Map of Madagascar | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Madagascar in the World
Madagascar in the World

Crystal Travel


Madagascar - Introduction 1993
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Background: Formerly an independent kingdom Madagascar became a French colony in 1886 but regained its independence in 1960. During 1992-93 free presidential and National Assembly elections were held ending 17 years of single-party rule.


Madagascar - Geography 1993
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Location:
in the western Indian Ocean, 430 km east of Mozambique in
Southern Africa


Geographic coordinates

Map referenceAfrica, Standard Time Zones of the World

Area
Total: total: 587,040 km²

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 4,828 km
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Maritime claims

Climate: tropical along coast, temperate inland, arid in south

Terrain: narrow coastal plain, high plateau and mountains in center

Elevation

Natural resources: graphite, chromite, coal, bauxite, salt, quartz, tar sands, semiprecious stones, mica, fish
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 4%
Permanent crops: 1%
Meadows and pastures: 58%
Forest and woodland: 26%
Other: 11%

Irrigated land: 9,000 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Madagascar - People 1993
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Population: 13,005,989 (July 1993 est.)
Growth rate: 3.2% (1993 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Malagasy (singular and plural)
Adjective: Malagasy

Ethnic groups:
Malayo-Indonesian (Merina and related Betsileo), Cotiers (mixed African, Malayo-Indonesian, and Arab ancestry - Betsimisaraka,
Tsimihety, Antaisaka, Sakalava), French, Indian, Creole, Comoran


Languages: French (official), Malagasy (official)

Religions: indigenous beliefs 52%, Christian 41%, Muslim 7%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 3.2% (1993 est.)

Birth rate: 45.66 births/1000 population (1993 est.)

Death rate: 13.71 deaths/1000 population (1993 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1993 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: subject to periodic cyclones; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
Current issues note:
world's fourth-largest island; strategic location along Mozambique
Channel


Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 91 deaths/1000 live births (1993 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 53.52 years
Female: 55.45 years (1993 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.75 children born/woman (1993 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
Total population: 80%
Male: 88%
Female: 73%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Madagascar - Government 1993
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Madagascar
Conventional short form: Madagascar
Local long form: Republique de Madagascar
Local short form: Madagascar
Former: Malagasy Republic

Government type: republic

Capital: Antananarivo

Administrative divisions:
6 provinces - Antananarivo, Antsiranana,
Fianarantsoa, Mahajanga, Toamasina, Toliary


Dependent areas

Independence: 26 June 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 26 June (1960)

Constitution

Legal system: based on French civil law system and traditional Malagasy law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: president, prime minister, Council of Ministers

Legislative branch: unicameral Popular National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale Populaire; note - the National Assembly has suspended its operations during 1992 and early 1993 in preparation for new legislative elections. In its place, an interim High Authority of State and a Social and Economic Recovery Council have been established

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme), High Constitutional Court (Haute Cour Constitutionnelle)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation:
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU,
LORCS, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WTO


Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Pierrot Jocelyn RAJAONARIVELO
In the us chancery: 2,374 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: (202) 265-5,525 or 5,526
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Douglas BARRETT
From the us embassy: 14 and 16 Rue Rainitovo, Antsahavola, Antananarivo
From the us mailing address: B. P. 620, Antananarivo
From the us telephone: 261 (2) 212-57, 209-56, 200-89, 207-18
From the us fax: 261-234-539

Flag descriptionflag of Madagascar: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a vertical white band of the same width on hoist side

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Madagascar - Economy 1993
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Economy overview: Madagascar is one of the poorest countries in the world. Agriculture, including fishing and forestry, is the mainstay of the economy, accounting for over 30% of GDP and contributing to more than 70% of total export earnings. Industry is largely confined to the processing of agricultural products and textile manufacturing; in 1991 it accounted for only 13% of GDP. In 1986 the government introduced a five-year development plan that stressed self-sufficiency in food (mainly rice) by 1990, increased production for exports, and reduced energy imports. After mid-1991, however, output dropped sharply because of protracted antigovernment strikes and demonstrations for political reform.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 1% (1992 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 31% of GDP; cash crops - coffee, vanilla, sugarcane, cloves, cocoa; food crops - rice, cassava, beans, bananas, peanuts; cattle raising widespread; almost self-sufficient in rice

Industries: agricultural processing (meat canneries, soap factories, breweries, tanneries, sugar refining plants), light consumer goods industries (textiles, glassware), cement, automobile assembly plant, paper, petroleum

Industrial production growth rate:
growth rate 5.2% (1990 est.); accounts for 13% of
GDP capita (1991)


Labor force: 4.9 million 90% nonsalaried family workers engaged in subsistence agriculture; 175,000 wage earners
By occupation agriculture: 26%
By occupation domesticservice: 17%
By occupation industry: 15%
By occupation commerce: 14%
By occupation construction: 11%
By occupation services: 9%
By occupation transportation: 6%
By occupation other:
2%
51% of population of working age (1985)

Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA%

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $250 million; expenditures $265 million, including capital expenditures of $180 million (1991)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $312 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
Commodoties: coffee 45%, vanilla 20%, cloves 11%, sugar, petroleum products
Partners: France, Japan, Italy, Germany, US

Imports: $350 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
Commodoties: intermediate manufactures 30%, capital goods 28%, petroleum 15%, consumer goods 14%, food 13%
Partners: France, Germany, UK, other EC, US

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Malagasy francs (FMG) per US$1 - 1,910.2 (December 1992), 1,867.9 (1992), 1,835.4 (1991), 1,454.6 (December 1990), 1,603.4 (1989), 1,407.1 (1988), 1,069.2 (1987)


Madagascar - Energy 1993
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Electricity access

Electricity production

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Madagascar - Communication 1993
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Madagascar - Military 1993
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: exchange rate conversion - $37 million, 2.2% of GDP (1991 est.)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Madagascar - Transportation 1993
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 146
Usable: 103
With permanentsurface runways: 30
With runways over 3659 m: 0
With runways 2440-3659 m: 3
With runways 1220-2439 m: 36

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: of local importance only; isolated streams and small portions of Canal des Pangalanes

Merchant marine:
11 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 35,359 GRT/48,772
DWT; includes 6 cargo, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 oil tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 1 liquefied gas


Ports and terminals


Madagascar - Transnational issues 1993
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Disputes international:
claims Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso
Islands, Juan de Nova Island, and Tromelin Island (all administered by France)


Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis (cultivated and wild varieties) used mostly for domestic consumption


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