Statistical information Myanmar 1993Myanmar

Map of Myanmar | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Myanmar in the World
Myanmar in the World

Corel


Myanmar - Introduction 1993
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Background: Despite multiparty elections in 1990 that resulted in the main opposition party winning a decisive victory the military junta ruling the country refused to hand over power. Key opposition leader and Nobel Peace Prize recipient AUNG San Suu Kyi has been under house arrest since 1989; her supporters are routinely harassed or jailed.


Myanmar - Geography 1993
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Location: Southeast Asia, bordering the Bay of Bengal, between Bangladesh and Thailand

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Area
Total: 678,500 km²
Land: 657,740 km²

Land boundaries: total 5,876 km, Bangladesh 193 km, China 2,185 km, India 1,463 km, Laos 235 km, Thailand 1,800 km

Coastline: 1,930 km
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of continental margin
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Maritime claims

Climate: tropical monsoon; cloudy, rainy, hot, humid summers (southwest monsoon, June to September; less cloudy, scant rainfall, mild temperatures, lower humidity during winter (northeast monsoon, December to April)

Terrain: central lowlands ringed by steep, rugged highlands

Elevation

Natural resources: petroleum, timber, tin, antimony, zinc, copper, tungsten, lead, coal, some marble, limestone, precious stones, natural gas
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 15%
Permanent crops: 1%
Meadows and pastures: 1%
Forest and woodland: 49%
Other: 34%

Irrigated land: 10,180 km² (1989)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Myanmar - People 1993
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Population: 43,455,953 (July 1993 est.)
Growth rate: 1.88% (1993 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Burmese (singular and plural)
Adjective: Burmese

Ethnic groups:
Burman 68%, Shan 9%, Karen 7%, Rakhine 4%, Chinese 3%,
Mon 2%, Indian 2%, other 5%


Languages: Burmese; minority ethnic groups have their own languages

Religions:
Buddhist 89%, Christian 4% (Baptist 3%, Roman Catholic 1%),
Muslim 4%, animist beliefs 1%, other 2%


Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.88% (1993 est.)

Birth rate: 28.88 births/1000 population (1993 est.)

Death rate

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1993 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: subject to destructive earthquakes and cyclones; flooding and landslides common during rainy season (June to September); deforestation
Current issues note: strategic location near major Indian Ocean shipping lanes

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 65.7 deaths/1000 live births (1993 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 59.5 years
Male: 57.5 years
Female: 61.63 years (1993 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.7 children born/woman (1993 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
Total population: 81%
Male: 89%
Female: 72%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Myanmar - Government 1993
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Country name
Conventional long form: Union of Burma
Conventional short form: Burma
Local long form:
Pyidaungzu Myanma Naingngandaw (translated by the US
Government as Union of Myanma and by the Burmese as Union of Myanmar)

Local short form: Myanma Naingngandaw
Former: Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma

Government type: military regime

Capital

Administrative divisions:
7 divisions* (yin-mya, singular - yin) and 7 states (pyine-mya, singular - pyine); Chin State, Irrawaddy*, Kachin State,
Karan State, Kayah State, Magwe*, Mandalay*, Mon State, Pegu*, Rakhine State,
Rangoon*, Sagaing*, Shan State, Tenasserim*


Dependent areas

Independence: 4 January 1948 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 4 January (1948)

Constitution:
3 January 1974 (suspended since 18 September 1988); National
Convention started on 9 January 1993 to draft chapter headings for a new constitution


Legal system: has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chairman of the State Law and Order Restoration Council, State Law and Order Restoration Council

Legislative branch: unicameral People's Assembly (Pyithu Hluttaw) was dissolved after the coup of 18 September 1988

Judicial branch: none; Council of People's Justices was abolished after the coup of 18 September 1988

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation:
AsDB, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO


Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador U THAUNG
In the us chancery: 2,300 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us consulate general: New York
From the us chief of mission:
(vacant); Deputy Chief of Mission, Charge d'Affaires
Franklin P. HUDDLE, Jr.

From the us embassy: 581 Merchant Street, Rangoon
From the us mailing address: GPO Box 521, AMEMB Box B, APO AP 96,546
From the us telephone: 95 (1) 82,055, 82,181
From the us fax: 95 (1) 80,409

Flag descriptionflag of Myanmar: red with a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing, all in white, 14 five-pointed stars encircling a cogwheel containing a stalk of rice; the 14 stars represent the 14 administrative divisions

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Myanmar - Economy 1993
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Economy overview: Burma is a poor Asian country, with a per capita GDP of about$660. The nation has been unable to achieve any substantial improvement in export earnings because of falling prices for many of its major commodity exports. For rice, traditionally the most important export, the drop in world prices has been accompanied by shrinking markets and a smaller volume of sales. In 1985 teak replaced rice as the largest export and continues to hold this position. The economy is heavily dependent on the agricultural sector, which generates about 40% of GDP and provides employment for 65% of the work force. Burma has been largely isolated from international economic forces and has been trying to encourage foreign investment, so far with little success.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 1.3% (1992)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 40% of GDP (including fish and forestry; self-sufficient in food; principal crops - paddy rice, corn, oilseed, sugarcane, pulses; world's largest stand of hardwood trees; rice and teak account for 55% of export revenues

Industries: agricultural processing; textiles and footwear; wood and wood products; petroleum refining; mining of copper, tin, tungsten, iron; construction materials; pharmaceuticals; fertilizer

Industrial production growth rate

Labor force: 16.007 million (1992)
By occupation agriculture: 65.2%
By occupation industry: 14.3%
By occupation trade: 10.1%
By occupation government: 6.3%
By occupation other: 4.1% (FY89est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 9.6% (FY89 est.) in urban areas

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $8.1 billion; expenditures $11.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $535.1 million (FY92)
Commodoties: teak, rice, oilseed, metals, rubber, gems
Partners: China, India, Thailand, Singapore

Imports: $907.0 million (FY92)
Commodoties: machinery, transport equipment, chemicals, food products
Partners: Japan, China, Singapore

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: kyats (K) per US$1 - 6.0963 (January 1992), 6.2837 (1991), 6.3386 (1990), 6.7049 (1989), 6.46 (1988), 6.6535 (1987; unofficial - 105


Myanmar - Energy 1993
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 1,100,000 kW capacity; 2,800 million kWh produced, 65 kWh per capita (1992)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Myanmar - Communication 1993
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Myanmar - Military 1993
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP (1992)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Myanmar - Transportation 1993
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 83
Usable: 78
With permanentsurface runways: 26
With runways over 3659 m: 0
With runways 2440-3659 m: 3

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: crude oil 1,343 km; natural gas 330 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 12,800 km; 3,200 km navigable by large commercial vessels

Merchant marine:
62 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 940,264
GRT/1,315,156 DWT; includes 3 passenger-cargo, 18 cargo, 5 refrigerated cargo, 4 vehicle carrier, 2 container, 2 oil tanker, 3 chemical, 1 combination ore/oil, 23 bulk, 1 combination bulk


Ports and terminals


Myanmar - Transnational issues 1993
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Disputes international: none

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: world's largest illicit producer of opium poppy and minor producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; opium production has nearly doubled since the collapse of Rangoon's antinarcotic programs


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