Statistical information Spratly Islands 1993Spratly%20Islands

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Spratly Islands in the World
Spratly Islands in the World

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Spratly Islands - Introduction 1993
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Background: Rich fishing grounds and the potential for gas and oil deposits have caused this archipelago to be claimed in its entirety by China Taiwan and Vietnam while portions are claimed by Malaysia and the Philippines. All five parties have occupied certain islands or reefs and occasional clashes have occurred between Chinese and Vietnamese naval forces


Spratly Islands - Geography 1993
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Location: in the South China Sea, between Vietnam and the Philippines

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceAsia, Southeast Asia

Area
Total: NA km² but less than 5 km²
Land: less than 5 km²

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 926 km
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Maritime claims

Climate: tropical

Terrain: flat

Elevation

Natural resources: fish, guano, undetermined oil and natural gas potential
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 0%
Permanent crops: 0%
Meadows and pastures: 0%
Other: 100%
Forest and woodland: 0%

Irrigated land: 0 km²

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Spratly Islands - People 1993
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Population: no indigenous inhabitants; note - there are scattered garrisons
Growth rate: 0.24% (1993 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Spaniard(s)
Adjective: Spanish

Ethnic groups: composite of Mediterranean and Nordic types

Languages: Castilian Spanish, Catalan 17%, Galician 7%, Basque 2%

Religions: Roman Catholic 99%, other sects 1%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 0.24% (1993 est.)

Birth rate: 10.88 births/1000 population (1993 est.)

Death rate: 8.76 deaths/1000 population (1993 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.24 migrant(s)/1000 population (1993 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: subject to typhoons; includes numerous small islands, atolls, shoals, and coral reefs
Current issues note: strategically located near several primary shipping lanes in the central South China Sea; serious navigational hazard

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 7 deaths/1000 live births (1993 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 77.51 years
Male: 74.22 years
Female: 81.04 years (1993 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.38 children born/woman (1993 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
Total population: 95%
Male: 97%
Female: 93%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Spratly Islands - Government 1993
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Country name
Conventional short form: Spratly Islands
Local short form: Espana
Conventional long form: none

Government type: parliamentary monarchy

Capital: Madrid

Administrative divisions:
17 autonomous communities (comunidades autonomas, singular - comunidad autonoma); Andalucia, Aragon, Asturias,
Canarias, Cantabria, Castilla-La Mancha, Castilla y Leon, Cataluna, Communidad
Valencia, Extremadura, Galicia, Islas Baleares, La Rioja, Madrid, Murcia,
Navarra, Pais Vasco
there are five places of sovereignty on and off the coast of Morocco (Ceuta, Mellila, Islas Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera) with administrative status unknown


Dependent areas

Independence: 1492 (expulsion of the Moors and unification)

National holiday
National Day 12 October principal national parties from right to left:
Popular Party (PP), Jose
Maria AZNAR; Social Democratic Center (CDS), Rafael Calvo ORTEGA; Spanish
Socialist Workers Party (PSOE), Felipe GONZALEZ Marquez, secretary general;
Socialist Democracy Party (DS), Ricardo Garcia DAMBORENEA; Spanish Communist

Party PCE Julio ANGUITA; United Left IU a coalition of parties including the PCE a branch of the PSOE and other small parties leader NA chief regional parties:
Convergence and Unity (CiU), Jordi PUJOL Saley, in
Catalonia; Basque Nationalist Party (PNV), Xabier ARZALLUS; Basque Solidarity (EA), Carlos GARAICOETXEA Urizza; Basque Popular Unity (HB), Jon IDIGORAS;
Basque Left (EE), Juan Maria BANDRES; Basque Socialist Party (PSE); coalition of the PSE, EE, and PSOE, Jose Maria BANEGAS; Euskal Ezkerra (EUE), Xabier
GURRUTXAGA; Andalusian Party (PA), Pedro PACHECO; Independent Canary Group (AIC), leader NA; Aragon Regional Party (PAR), leader NA; Valencian Union (UV), leader NA


Constitution: 6 December 1978, effective 29 December 1978

Legal system: civil law system, with regional applications; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: monarch, president of the government (prime minister), deputy prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet), Council of State

Legislative branch: bicameral The General Courts or National Assembly (Las Cortes Generales) consists of an upper house or Senate (Senado) and a lower house or Congress of Deputies (Congreso de los Diputados)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Tribunal Supremo)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation:
AG (observer), AsDB, Australian Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN,
COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, AfDB, EC, ECE, ECLAC, EIB, ESA, FAO, G-8, GATT, IADB, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), LORCS,
MTRC, NACC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, ONUSAL, PCA,
UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMOZ, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WTO, ZC


Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Jaime De OJEDA y Eiseley
In the us chancery: 2,700 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20,009
In the us telephone: (202) 265-0190 or 0191
In the us consulates general:
Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New
Orleans, New York, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)

From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Richard G. CAPEN, Jr.
From the us embassy: Serrano 75, 28,006 Madrid
From the us mailing address: PSC 61, APO AE 9,642
From the us telephone: 34 (1) 577-4,000
From the us fax: 34 (1) 577-5,735
From the us consulate general: Barcelona
From the us consulate: Bilbao with the national coat of arms on the hoist side of the yellow band; the coat of arms includes the royal seal framed by the Pillars of Hercules, which are the two promontories (Gibraltar and Ceuta) on either side of the eastern end of the Strait of Gibraltar

Flag descriptionflag of Spratly%20Islands

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Spratly Islands - Economy 1993
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Economy overview: Economic activity is limited to commercial fishing; proximity to nearby oil- and gas-producing sedimentary basins suggests the potential for oil and gas deposits, but the region is largely unexplored, and there are no reliable estimates of potential reserves; commercial exploitation has yet to be developed.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 1% (1992)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for about 5% of GDP and 14% of labor force; major products - grain, vegetables, olives, wine grapes, sugar beets, citrus fruit, beef, pork, poultry, dairy; largely self-sufficient in food; fish catch of 1.4 million metric tons is among top 20 nations

Industries: none

Industrial production growth rate: growth rate 0.6% (1992 est.)

Labor force: 14.621 million
By occupation services: 53%
By occupation industry: 24%
By occupation agriculture: 14%
By occupation construction: 9% (1988)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 19% (yearend 1992)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $122.9 billion; expenditures $140.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $62 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
Commodoties: cars and trucks, semifinished manufactured goods, foodstuffs, machinery
Partners: EC 71.0%, US 4.9%, other developed countries 7.9% (1991)

Imports: $100 billion (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
Commodoties: machinery, transport equipment, fuels, semifinished goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods, chemicals
Partners: EC 60.0%, US 8.0%, other developed countries 11.5%, Middle East 2.6% (1991)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: pesetas (Ptas) per US$1 - 114.59 (January 1993), 102.38 (1992), 103.91 (1991), 101.93 (1990), 118.38 (1989), 116.49 (1988)


Spratly Islands - Energy 1993
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 46,600,000 kW capacity; 157,000 million kWh produced, 4,000 kWh per capita (1992)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Spratly Islands - Communication 1993
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Spratly Islands - Military 1993
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: exchange rate conversion - $9.6 billion, 1.6% of GDP (1992) Match 223 DB Rec# - 55,971
Percent of gdp ID number:
CI WOFACT 223
SPRATLY ISLANDS
SPRATLY ISLANDS
SPRATLY ISLANDS


Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Spratly Islands - Transportation 1993
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 4 with permanent-surfaced runways: 1
Usable: 99
With permanentsurface runways: 60
With runways over 3659 m: 0
With runways 1220-2439 m: 0
With runways 2440-3659 m: 0

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: crude oil 265 km, petroleum products 1,794 km, natural gas 1,666 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 1,045 km, but of minor economic importance

Merchant marine:
242 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,394,175
GRT/4,262,868 DWT; includes 2 passenger, 8 short-sea passenger, 71 cargo, 12 refrigerated cargo, 12 container, 32 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 4 vehicle carrier, 41 oil tanker, 14 chemical tanker, 7 liquefied gas, 3 specialized tanker, 36 bulk


Ports and terminals


Spratly Islands - Transnational issues 1993
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Disputes international:
all of the Spratly Islands are claimed by China,
Taiwan, and Vietnam; parts of them are claimed by Malaysia and the
Philippines; in 1984, Brunei established an exclusive economic zone, which encompasses Louisa Reef, but has not publicly claimed the island


Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: key European gateway country for Latin American cocaine entering the European market


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