Statistical information Tonga 1993Tonga

Map of Tonga | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Tonga in the World
Tonga in the World

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Tonga - Introduction 1993
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Background: Deforestation results as more and more land is being cleared for agriculture and settlement; some damage to coral reefs from starfish and indiscriminate coral and shell collectors; overhunting threatens native sea turtle populations


Tonga - Geography 1993
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Location: Oceania, 2,250 km north-northwest of New Zealand, about

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceOceania, Standard Time Zones of the World

Area
Total: 748 km²
Land: 718 km²

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 419 km
Continental shelf: not specified
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Maritime claims

Climate: tropical; modified by trade winds; warm season (December to May), cool season (May to December)

Terrain: most islands have limestone base formed from uplifted coral formation; others have limestone overlying volcanic base

Elevation

Natural resources: fish, fertile soil
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 25%
Permanent crops: 55%
Meadows and pastures: 6%
Forest and woodland: 12%
Other: 2%

Irrigated land: NA km²

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Tonga - People 1993
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Population: 103,949 (July 1993 est.)
Growth rate: 0.8% (1993 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Tongan(s)
Adjective: Tongan

Ethnic groups: Polynesian, Europeans about 300

Languages: Tongan, English

Religions: Christian (Free Wesleyan Church claims over 30,000 adherents)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 0.8% (1993 est.)

Birth rate: 25.16 births/1000 population (1993 est.)

Death rate: 6.75 deaths/1000 population (1993 est.)

Net migration rate: -10.4 migrant(s)/1000 population (1993 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: archipelago of 170 islands (36 inhabited; subject to cyclones (October to April; deforestation

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 67.79 years
Male: 65.5 years
Female: 70.24 years (1993 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.68 children born/woman (1993 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1976)
Total population: 57%
Male: 60%
Female: 60%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Tonga - Government 1993
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Country name
Conventional long form: Kingdom of Tonga
Conventional short form: Tonga
Former: Friendly Islands

Government type: hereditary constitutional monarchy

Capital: Nuku alofa

Administrative divisions: three island groups; Ha'apai, Tongatapu, Vava'u

Dependent areas

Independence: 4 June 1970 (from UK)

National holiday:
Emancipation Day, 4 June (1970)
POHIVA; Christian Democratic Party, leader NA


Constitution: 4 November 1875, revised 1 January 1967

Legal system: based on English law

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: all literate, tax-paying males and all literate females over 21

Executive branch: monarch, prime minister, deputy prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet), Privy Council

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly (Fale Alea)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation:
ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD,
IFC, IMF, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, SPARTECA, SPC, SPF, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WHO


Diplomatic representation
In the us: Ambassador Sione KITE, resides in London
From the us: the US has no offices in Tonga; the ambassador to Fiji is accredited to Tonga and makes periodic visits

Flag descriptionflag of Tonga: red with a bold red cross on a white rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Tonga - Economy 1993
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Economy overview: The economy's base is agriculture, which employs about 70% of the labor force and contributes 40% to GDP. Coconuts, bananas, and vanilla beans are the main crops and make up two-thirds of exports. The country must import a high proportion of its food, mainly from New Zealand. The manufacturing sector accounts for only 11% of GDP. Tourism is the primary source of hard currency earnings, but the island remains dependent on sizable external aid and remittances to offset its trade deficit.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 0.4% (FY92 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 40% of GDP; dominated by coconut, copra, and banana production; vanilla beans, cocoa, coffee, ginger, black pepper

Industries: tourism, fishing

Industrial production growth rate: growth rate 1.7% (FY90; accounts for 11% of GDP

Labor force: NA
By occupation agriculture: 70%
By occupation mining: 600 people engaged in mining
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA%

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $36.4 million; expenditures $68.1 million, including capital expenditures of $33.2 million (FY91 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports
Commodoties: coconut oil, desiccated coconut, copra, bananas, taro, vanilla beans, fruits, vegetables, fish
Partners: Japan 34%, US 17%, Australia 13%, NZ 13% (FY91)

Imports: $68.3 million (c.i.f., FY92 est.)
Commodoties: food products, machinery and transport equipment, manufactures, fuels, chemicals
Partners: NZ 33%, Australia 22%, US 8%, Japan 8% (FY91)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: pa'anga (T$) per US$1 - 1.3996 (January 1993), 1.3471 (1992), 1.2961 (1991), 1.2809 (1990), 1.2637 (1989), 1.2799 (1988)


Tonga - Energy 1993
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 6,000 kW capacity; 8 million kWh produced, 80 kWh per capita (1990)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Tonga - Communication 1993
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Tonga - Military 1993
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Tonga - Transportation 1993
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 6
Usable: 6
With permanentsurface runways: 1
With runways over 3659 m: 0
With runways 2440-3659: 1
With runways 1220-2439 m: 1

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines

Railways

Roadways

Waterways

Merchant marine:
3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,765 GRT/10,597
DWT; includes 1 cargo, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 liquefied gas


Ports and terminals


Tonga - Transnational issues 1993
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Disputes international: none

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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