Statistical information Turkey 1993Turkey

Map of Turkey | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Turkey in the World
Turkey in the World

The Fives Hotels


Turkey - Introduction 1993
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Background: the Ottoman Empire. Soon thereafter the country instituted secular laws to replace


Turkey - Geography 1993
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Location:
Southeastern Europe/Southwest Asia, bordering the Mediterranean
Sea and Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Iran


Geographic coordinates

Map reference:
Africa, Europe, Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the
World


Area
Total: 780,580 km²
Land: 770,760 km²

Land boundaries: total 2,627 km, Armenia 268 km, Azerbaijan 9 km, Bulgaria 240 km, Georgia 252 km, Greece 206 km, Iran 499 km, Iraq 331 km, Syria 822 km

Coastline: 7,200 km
Exclusive economic zone: in Black Sea only - to the maritime boundary agreed upon with the former USSR
Territorial sea: 6 nm in the Aegean Sea,

Maritime claims

Climate: temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior

Terrain: mostly mountains; narrow coastal plain; high central plateau (Anatolia)

Elevation

Natural resources: antimony, coal, chromium, mercury, copper, borate, sulphur, iron ore
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 30%
Permanent crops: 4%
Meadows and pastures: 12%
Forest and woodland: 26%

Irrigated land: 22,200 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Turkey - People 1993
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Population: 60,897,841 (July 1993 est.)
Growth rate: 2.07% (1993 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Turk(s)
Adjective: Turkish

Ethnic groups: Turkish 80%, Kurdish 20% (est.)

Languages: Turkish (official), Kurdish, Arabic

Religions: Muslim 99.8% (mostly Sunni), other 0.2% (Christian and Jews)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 2.07% (1993 est.)

Birth rate: 26.62 births/1000 population (1993 est.)

Death rate: 5.97 deaths/1000 population (1993 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1993 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: subject to severe earthquakes, especially along major river valleys in west; air pollution; desertification
Current issues note:
strategic location controlling the Turkish straits (Bosporus, Sea of
Marmara, Dardanelles) that link Black and Aegean Seas


Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 52 deaths/1000 live births (1993 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 70.41 years
Male: 68.11 years
Female: 72.82 years (1993 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.3 children born/woman (1993 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
Total population: 81%
Male: 90%
Female: 71%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Turkey - Government 1993
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Country name

Government type: republican parliamentary democracy

Capital: Ankara

Administrative divisions:
73 provinces (iller, singular - il); Adana,
Adiyaman, Afyon, Agri, Aksaray, Amasya, Ankara, Antalya, Artvin, Aydin,
Balikesir, Batman, Bayburt, Bilecik, Bingol, Bitlis, Bolu, Burdur, Bursa,
Canakkale, Cankiri, Corum, Denizli, Diyarbakir, Edirne, Elazig, Erzincan,
Erzurum, Eskisehir, Gaziantep, Giresun, Gumushane, Hakkari, Hatay, Icel,
Isparta, Istanbul, Izmir, Kahraman Maras, Karaman, Kars, Kastamonu, Kayseri,
Kirikkale, Kirklareli, Kirsehir, Kocaeli, Konya, Kutahya, Malatya, Manisa,
Mardin, Mugla, Mus, Nevsehir, Nigde, Ordu, Rize, Sakarya, Samsun, Siirt,
Sinop, Sirnak, Sivas, Tekirdag, Tokat, Trabzon, Tunceli, Urfa, Usak, Van,
Yozgat, Zonguldak


Dependent areas

Independence: 29 October 1923 (successor state to the Ottoman Empire)

National holiday:
Anniversary of the Declaration of the Republic, 29
October (1923)


Constitution: 7 November 1982

Legal system: derived from various continental legal systems; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch: president, Presidential Council, prime minister, deputy prime minister, Cabinet Meclisi)

Legislative branch

Judicial branch: Court of Cassation

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation:
AsDB, BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE, CERN (observer), COCOM, CSCE, EBRD,
ECE, ECO, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IEA, IFAD, IFC,
ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU,
LORCS, NACC, NATO, NEA, OECD, OIC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO,
UNIKOM, UNRWA, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Nuzhet KANDEMIR
In the us chancery: 1714 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,036
In the us telephone: (202) 659-8,200
In the us consulates general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, and New York
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Richard C. BARKLEY
From the us embassy: 110 Ataturk Boulevard, Ankara
From the us mailing address: PSC 88, Box 5,000, Ankara, or APO AE 9,823
From the us telephone: 90 (4) 426 54 70
From the us fax: 90 (4) 467-0057 and 0019
From the us consulates general: Istanbul and Izmir
From the us consulate: Adana

Flag descriptionflag of Turkey: red with a vertical white crescent (the closed portion is toward the hoist side) and white five-pointed star centered just outside the crescent opening

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Turkey - Economy 1993
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Economy overview: After an impressive economic performance through most of the 1980s, Turkey has experienced erratic rates of economic growth since 1988 - ranging from a high of 9.2% in 1990 to a low of 0.9% in 1991. Strong consumer demand and increased public investment led the way to a strong 5.9% growth in 1992. Chronic high inflation is Turkey's most serious economic problem, leading to high interest rates and the rapid depreciation of the Turkish lira. The huge public sector deficit - about 12% of GDP - and the Treasury's heavy reliance on Central Bank financing of the deficit are the major causes of Turkish inflation. Meanwhile, wage increases in both the public and private sector have outpaced productivity gains, limited the government's ability to reduce current expenditures, and hindered the return to profitability of many about 20% of exports. The government has launched a multibillion-dollar development program in the southeastern region, which includes the building of a dozen dams on the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers to generate electric power and irrigate large tracts of farmland. The Turkish economy will probably continue to grow faster than the West European average in 1993, but the shaky coalition government of Prime Minister DEMIREL - which has seen its parliamentary majority shrink from 36 to 11 seats during its first year in power - is unlikely to risk further erosion of its support by implementing the belt-tightening measures necessary to substantially reduce inflation.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 5.9% (1992)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 18% of GDP and employs about half of working force; products - tobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets, pulses, citrus fruit, variety of animal products; self-sufficient in food most years

Industries: textiles, food processing, mining (coal, chromite, copper, boron minerals), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper

Industrial production growth rate:
growth rate 3.2% (1991 est.); accounts for 28% of
GDP


Labor force: 20.7 million
By occupation agriculture: 50%
By occupation services: 35%
By occupation industry: 15%
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 11.1% (1992 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $40.5 billion; expenditures $46.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $5.5 billion (1993)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $13.7 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
Commodoties: manufactured goods 69%, foodstuffs 22%, fuels 2%
Partners: EC countries 51%, US 7%, Iran 5%, former USSR 5%

Imports: $21.1 billion (c.i.f., 1991)
Commodoties: manufactured goods 61%, foodstuffs 8%, fuels 21%
Partners: EC countries 44%, US 12%, former USSR 5%

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Turkish liras (TL) per US$1 - 8,814.3 (January 1993), 6,872.4 (1992), 4,171.8 (1991), 2,608.6 (1990), 2,121.7 (1989), 1,422.3 (1988)


Turkey - Energy 1993
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 14,400,000 kW capacity; 44,000 million kWh produced, 750 kWh per capita (1991)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Turkey - Communication 1993
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Turkey - Military 1993
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: exchange rate conversion - $5.6 billion, 3.9% of GDP (1992)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Turkey - Transportation 1993
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 110
Usable: 102
With permanentsurface runways: 65
With runways over 3659 m: 3
With runways 2440-3659 m: 32
With runways 1220-2439 m: 26

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: crude oil 1,738 km, petroleum products 2,321 km, natural gas 708 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: about 1,200 km

Merchant marine:
353 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,825,274
GRT/6,628,207 DWT; includes 7 short-sea passenger, 1 passenger-cargo, 189 cargo, 1 container, 6 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 2 refrigerated cargo, 1 livestock carrier, 39 oil tanker, 10 chemical tanker, 3 liquefied gas, 9 combination ore/oil, 2 specialized tanker, 80 bulk, 3 combination bulk


Ports and terminals


Turkey - Transnational issues 1993
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Disputes international:
complex maritime and air (but not territorial) disputes with Greece in Aegean Sea; Cyprus question; Hatay question with
Syria; ongoing dispute with downstream riparians (Syria and Iraq) over water development plans for the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers


Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs:
major transit route for Southwest Asian heroin and hashish to Western Europe and the US via air, land, and sea routes; major Turkish,
Iranian, and other international trafficking organizations operate out of
Istanbul; laboratories to convert imported morphine base into heroin have sprung up in remote regions of Turkey as well as near Istanbul; government maintains strict controls over areas of legal opium poppy cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $665 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $4.5 billion; note - aid for Persian Gulf war efforts from coalition allies (1991), $4.1 billion; aid pledged for Turkish Defense Fund,$2.5 billion



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