Statistical information Venezuela 1993Venezuela

Map of Venezuela | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Venezuela in the World
Venezuela in the World

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Venezuela - Introduction 1993
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Background: Venezuela was one of the three countries that emerged from the collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others being Colombia and Ecuador). For most of the first half of the 20th century Venezuela was ruled by generally benevolent military strongmen who promoted the oil industry and allowed for some social reforms. Democratically elected governments have held sway since 1959. Current concerns include: drug-related conflicts along the Colombian border increasing internal drug consumption overdependence on the petroleum industry with its price fluctuations and irresponsible mining operations which are endangering the rain forest and indigenous peoples.


Venezuela - Geography 1993
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Location:
Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea between
Colombia and Guyana


Geographic coordinates

Map referenceSouth America, Standard Time Zones of the World

Area
Total: 912,050 km²
Land: 882,050 km²

Land boundaries:
total 4,993 km, Brazil 2,200 km, Colombia 2,050 km,
Guyana 743 km


Coastline: 2,800 km
Contiguous zone: 15 nm
Continental shelf: 200 m depth or to depth of exploitation
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Maritime claims

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands

Terrain: Andes mountains and Maracaibo lowlands in northwest; central plains (llanos; Guyana highlands in southeast

Elevation

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, gold, bauxite, other minerals, hydropower, diamonds
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 3%
Permanent crops: 1%
Meadows and pastures: 20%
Forest and woodland: 39%
Other: 37%

Irrigated land: 2,640 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Venezuela - People 1993
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Population: 20,117,687 (July 1993 est.)
Growth rate: 2.22% (1993 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Venezuelan(s)
Adjective: Venezuelan

Ethnic groups: mestizo 67%, white 21%, black 10%, Indian 2%

Languages:
Spanish (official), Indian dialects spoken by about 200,000
Amerindians in the remote interior


Religions: nominally Roman Catholic 96%, Protestant 2%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 2.22% (1993 est.)

Birth rate: 26.37 births/1000 population (1993 est.)

Death rate: 4.69 deaths/1000 population (1993 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.48 migrant(s)/1000 population (1993 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: subject to floods, rockslides, mudslides; periodic droughts; increasing industrial pollution in Caracas and Maracaibo

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 28.9 deaths/1000 live births (1993 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 72.69 years
Male: 69.76 years
Female: 75.77 years (1993 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.14 children born/woman (1993 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
Total population: 88%
Male: 87%
Female: 90%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Venezuela - Government 1993
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Venezuela
Conventional short form: Venezuela
Local long form: Republica de Venezuela
Local short form: Venezuela

Government type: republic

Capital: Caracas

Administrative divisions:
21 states (estados, singular - estado), 1 territory* ( territorio), 1 federal district** (distrito federal), and 1 federal dependence*** (dependencia federal); Amazonas*, Anzoategui, Apure,
Aragua, Barinas, Bolivar, Carabobo, Cojedes, Delta Amacuro, Dependencias
Federales***, Distrito Federal**, Falcon, Guarico, Lara, Merida, Miranda,
Monagas, Nueva Esparta, Portuguesa, Sucre, Tachira, Trujillo, Yaracuy, Zulia
the federal dependence consists of 11 federally controlled island groups with a total of 72 individual islands


Dependent areas

Independence: 5 July 1811 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 5 July (1811)

Constitution: 23 January 1961

Legal system: based on Napoleonic code; judicial review of legislative acts in Cassation Court only; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: bicameral Congress of the Republic (Congreso de la Republica) consists of an upper chamber or Senate (Senado) and a lower chamber or Chamber of Deputies (Camara de Diputados)

Judicial branch

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation:
AG, CARICOM (observer), CDB, CG, ECLAC, FAO, G-3, G-11, G-15,
G-19, G-24, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IFAD, IFC, ILO,
IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS, MINURSO,
NAM, OAS, ONUSAL, OPANAL, OPEC, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO,
UNIKOM, UNPROFOR, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Simon Alberto CONSALVI Bottaro
In the us chancery: 1099 30th Street NW, Washington, DC 20,007
In the us telephone: (202) 342-2,214
In the us consulates general:
Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Miami, New
Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)

From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Michael Martin SKOL
From the us embassy:
Avenida Francisco de Miranda and Avenida Principal de la
Floresta, Caracas

From the us mailing address: P. O. Box 62,291, Caracas 1060-A, or APO AA 34,037
From the us telephone: 58 (2) 285-2,222
From the us fax: 58 (2) 285-0336
From the us consulate: Maracaibo

Flag descriptionflag of Venezuela: three equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), blue, and red with the coat of arms on the hoist side of the yellow band and an arc of seven white five-pointed stars centered in the blue band

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Venezuela - Economy 1993
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Economy overview: Petroleum is the backbone of the economy, accounting for 23% of GDP, 70% of central government revenues, and 82% of export earnings in 1992. President PEREZ introduced an economic readjustment program when he assumed office in February 1989. Lower tariffs and the removal of price controls, a free market exchange rate, and market-linked interest rates threw the economy into confusion, causing an 8% decline in GDP in 1989. However, the economy recovered part way in 1990 and grew by 10.4% in 1991 and 7.3% in 1992, led by the non-petroleum sector.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 7.3% (1992 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 6% of GDP and 16% of labor force; products - corn, sorghum, sugarcane, rice, bananas, vegetables, coffee, beef, pork, milk, eggs, fish; not self-sufficient in food other than meat

Industries: petroleum, iron-ore mining, construction materials, food processing, textiles, steel, aluminum, motor vehicle assembly

Industrial production growth rate:
growth rate 11.9% (1992 est.); accounts for 25% of
GDP, including petroleum


Labor force: 5.8 million
By occupation services: 56%
By occupation industry: 28%
By occupation agriculture: 16% (1985)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 8.4% (1992 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues $13.2 billion; expenditures $13.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $14.0 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
Commodoties: petroleum 82%, bauxite and aluminum, iron ore, agricultural products, basic manufactures
Partners: US 50.7%, Europe 13.7%, Japan 4.0% (1989)

Imports: $12.4 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
Commodoties: foodstuffs, chemicals, manufactures, machinery and transport equipment
Partners: US 44%, FRG 8.0%, Japan 4%, Italy 7%, Canada 2% (1989)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: bolivares (Bs) per US$1 - 80.18 (January 1993), 68.38 (1992), 56.82 (1991), 46.90 (1990), 34.68 (1989), 14.50 (fixed rate 1987-88)


Venezuela - Energy 1993
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 21,130,000 kW capacity; 58,541 million kWh produced, 2,830 kWh per capita (1992)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Venezuela - Communication 1993
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Venezuela - Military 1993
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Military expenditures
Percent of gdp: exchange rate conversion - $1.95 billion, 4% of GDP (1991)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Venezuela - Transportation 1993
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 360
Usable: 331
With permanentsurface runways: 133
With runways over 3659 m: 0
With runways 2440-3659 m: 15
With runways 1220-2439 m: 87

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: crude oil 6,370 km; petroleum products 480 km; natural gas 4,010 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 7,100 km; Rio Orinoco and Lago de Maracaibo accept

Merchant marine:
56 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 837,375
GRT/1,344,795 DWT; includes 1 short-sea passenger, 1 passenger cargo, 19 cargo, 2 container, 4 roll-on/roll-off, 18 oil tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 2 liquefied gas, 6 bulk, 1 vehicle carrier, 1 combination bulk


Ports and terminals


Venezuela - Transnational issues 1993
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Disputes international: claims all of Guyana west of the Essequibo river; maritime boundary dispute with Colombia in the Gulf of Venezuela

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis and coca leaf for the international drug trade on a small scale; however, large quantities of cocaine transit the country from Colombia; important money-laundering hub


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