Brunei 1994Brunei

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Brunei
Brunei 

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Brunei - Introduction 1994
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Background: Although greatly reduced in size since its heyday of the 16th century the Sultanate of Brunei sits atop extensive petroleum and natural gas fields the source of one of the highest per capita GDPs in the less developed countries.


Brunei - Geography 1994
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Location: Southeastern Asia, on the northern coast of Borneo almost completely surrounded by Malaysia

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceAsia, Oceania, Southeast Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World

Area
Total area total: 5,770 km²
Land: 5,270 km²

Land boundaries: total 381 km, Malysia 381 km

Coastline: 161 km

Maritime claims
Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid, rainy

Terrain: flat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly lowland in west

Elevation

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, timber
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 1%
Permanent crops: 1%
Meadows and pastures: 1%
Forest and woodland: 79%
Other: 18%

Irrigated land: 10 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: typhoons, earthquakes, and severe flooding are rare

Geography
Note: close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea linking Indian and Pacific Oceans; two parts physically separated by Malaysia; almost an enclave of Malaysia


Brunei - People 1994
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Population: 284,653 (July 1994 est.)
Growth rate: 2.7% (1994 est.)

Nationality: noun:Bruneian(s)

Ethnic groups: Malay 64%, Chinese 20%, other 16%

Languages: Malay (official), English, Chinese

Religions: Muslim (official) 63%, Buddhism 14%, Christian 8%, indigenous beliefs and other 15% (1981)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 2.7% (1994 est.)

Birth rate: 26.18 births/1000 population (1994 est.)

Death rate: 5.04 deaths/1000 population (1994 est.)

Net migration rate: 5.81 migrant(s)/1000 population (1994 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: NA

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 25.2 deaths/1000 live births (1994 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 71.1 years
Male: 69.46 years
Female: 72.78 years (1994 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.43 children born/woman (1994 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1981)
Total population: 77%
Male: 85%
Female: 69%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Brunei - Government 1994
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Country name
Conventional long form:
Negara Brunei Darussalam
conventional short form


Government type: constitutional sultanate

Capital: Bandar Seri Begawan

Administrative divisions: 4 districts (daerah-daerah, singular - daerah; Belait, Brunei and Muara, Temburong, Tutong

Dependent areas

Independence: 1 January 1984 (from UK)

National holiday: National Day 23 February (1984)

Constitution: 29 September 1959 (some provisions suspended under a State of Emergency since December 1962, others since independence on 1 January 1984)

Legal system: based on Islamic law

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: none

Executive branch: chief of state and head of government:Sultan and Prime Minister His Majesty Paduka Seri Baginda Sultan Haji HASSANAL Bolkiah Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah (since 5 October 1967)

Legislative branch: Land Force, Navy, Air Force, Royal Brunei Police
Legislative Council Majlis Masyuarat Megeri: elections last held in March 1962; in 1970 the Council was changed to an appointive body by decree of the sultan; an elected legislative Council is being considered as part of constitution reform, but elections are unlikely for several years

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: APEC, ASEAN, C, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, ICAO, IDB, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UPU, UNTAC, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Theresa A. TULL
From the us chancery: 2,600 Virginia Avenue NW, Suite 300, Washington, DC 20,037
From the us telephone: [673] (2) 229-670
From the us fax: (202) 342-0158
From the us embassy: Third Floor, Teck Guan Plaza, Jalan Sultan, Bandar Seri Begawan
From the us mailing address: American Embassy Box B, APO AP 96,440
From the us FAX: [673] (2) 225-293

Flag descriptionflag of Brunei: yellow with two diagonal bands of white (top, almost double width) and black starting from the upper hoist side; the national emblem in red is superimposed at the center; the emblem includes a swallow-tailed flag on top of a winged column within an upturned crescent above a scroll and flanked by two upraised hands

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Brunei - Economy 1994
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Economy overview: The economy is a mixture of foreign and domestic entrepreneurship, government regulation and welfare measures, and village tradition. It is almost totally supported by exports of crude oil and natural gas, with revenues from the petroleum sector accounting for more than 50% of GDP. Per capita GDP is among the highest in the Third World, and substantial income from overseas investment supplements domestic production. The government provides for all medical services and subsidizes food and housing.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 1% (1991)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: imports about 80% of its food needs; principal crops and livestock include rice, cassava, bananas, buffaloes, and pigs

Industries: petroleum, petroleum refining, liquefied natural gas, construction

Industrial production growth rate: 12.9% (1987; accounts for 52.4% of GDP

Labor force: 89,000 (includes members of the Army)
By occupation government: 47.5%
By occupation productionofoil naturalgas services and construction: 41.9%
By occupation agriculture forestry and fishing: 3.8% (1986)
By occupation note: 33% of labor force is foreign (1988)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 3.7% (1989)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues:$1.3 billion

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $2.3 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
Commodities: crude oil, liquefied natural gas, petroleum products
Partners: Japan 53%, UK 12%, South Korea 9%, Thailand 7%, Singapore 5% (1990)

Imports: $2 billion (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
Commodities: machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, chemicals
Partners: Singapore 35%, UK 26%, Switzerland 9%, US 9%, Japan 5% (1990)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $0

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Bruneian dollars (B$) per US$1 - 1.6032 (January 1994), 1.6158 (1993), 1.6290 (1992), 1.7276 (1991), 1.8125 (1990), 1.9503 (1989; note - the Bruneian dollar is at par with the Singapore dollar


Brunei - Energy 1994
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 890 million kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 3,300 kWh (1990)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Brunei - Communication 1994
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Brunei - Military 1994
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: exchange rate conversion - $300 million, 9% of GDP (1990)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Brunei - Transportation 1994
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 2
Usable: 2
With permanentsurface runways: 1
With runways over 3659 m: 1
With runways 2440-3659 m: 0
With runways 1220-2439 m: 1

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: crude oil 135 km; petroleum products 418 km; natural gas 920 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 209 km; navigable by craft drawing less than 1.2 meters

Merchant marine: 7 liquefied gas carriers (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 348,476 GRT/340,635 DWT

Ports and terminals


Brunei - Transnational issues 1994
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Disputes international: may wish to purchase the Malaysian salient that divides the country; all of the Spratly Islands are claimed by China, Taiwan, and Vietnam; parts of them are claimed by Malaysia and the Philippines; in 1984, Brunei established an exclusive fishing zone that encompasses Louisa Reef, but has not publicly claimed the island

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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