Ethiopia 1994Ethiopia

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Ethiopia
Ethiopia 

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Ethiopia - Introduction 1994
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Background: on 28 May 1991 the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) toppled the authoritarian government of MENGISTU Haile-Mariam and took control in Addis Ababa; a new constitution was promulgated in December 1994.


Ethiopia - Geography 1994
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Location: Eastern Africa, between Somalia and Sudan

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceAfrica, Standard Time Zones of the World

Area
Total area total: 1,127,127 km²
Land: 1,119,683 km²

Land boundaries: total 5,311 km, Djibouti 337 km, Eritrea 912 km, Kenya 830 km, Somalia 1,626 km, Sudan 1,606 km

Coastline: none - landlocked

Maritime claims: none - landlocked

Climate: tropical monsoon with wide topographic-induced variation

Terrain: high plateau with central mountain range divided by Great Rift Valley

Elevation

Natural resources: small reserves of gold, platinum, copper, potash
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 12%
Permanent crops: 1%
Meadows and pastures: 41%
Forest and woodland: 24%
Other: 22%

Irrigated land: 1,620 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: geologically active Great Rift Valley susceptible to earthquakes, volcanic eruptions; frequent droughts

Geography
Note: landlocked - entire coastline along the Red Sea was lost with the de jure independence of Eritrea on 27 April 1993


Ethiopia - People 1994
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Population: 54,927,108 (July 1994 est.)
Note: Ethiopian demographic data, except population and population growth rate, include Eritrea
Growth rate: 3.4% (1994 est.)

Nationality: noun:Ethiopian(s)

Ethnic groups: Oromo 40%, Amhara and Tigrean 32%, Sidamo 9%, Shankella 6%, Somali 6%, Afar 4%, Gurage 2%, other 1%

Languages: Amharic (official), Tigrinya, Orominga, Guaraginga, Somali, Arabic, English (major foreign language taught in schools)

Religions: Muslim 45%-50%, Ethiopian Orthodox 35%-40%, animist 12%, other 5%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 3.4% (1994 est.)

Birth rate: 45.01 births/1000 population (1994 est.)

Death rate: 13.89 deaths/1000 population (1994 est.)

Net migration rate: 2.84 migrant(s)/1000 population (1994 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; famine

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 106.4 deaths/1000 live births (1994 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 52.67 years
Male: 51 years
Female: 54.38 years (1994 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.81 children born/woman (1994 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 10 and over can read and write (1984)
Total population: 24%
Male: 33%
Female: 16%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Ethiopia - Government 1994
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Country name
Conventional long form: none
Conventional short form:
local long form: none
local short form; Ityop'iya


Government type: transitional government
Note: on 28 May 1991 the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) toppled the authoritarian government of MENGISTU Haile-Mariam and took control in Addis Ababa; the Transitional Government of Ethiopia (TGE), announced a two-year transitional period

Capital: Addis Ababa

Administrative divisions: 14 administrative regions (astedader akababiwach, singular - astedader akababi) Addis Ababa, Afar, Amhara, Benishangul, Gambela, Gurage-Hadiya-Kambata, Harer, Kefa, Omo, Oromo, Sidamo, Somali, Tigray, Wolayta

Dependent areas

Independence: oldest independent country in Africa and one of the oldest in the world - at least 2,000 years

National holiday: National Day, 28 May (1991) (defeat of Mengistu regime)

Constitution: to be redrafted by 1993

Legal system: NA

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President MELES Zenawi (since 1 June 1991); election last held 10 September 1987; next election planned after new constitution drafted; results - MENGISTU Haile-Mariam elected by the now defunct National Assembly, but resigned and left Ethiopia on 21 May 1991
Head of government: Prime Minister TAMIRAT Layne (since 6 June 1991)

Legislative branch: Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF)
Constituent Assembly: elections were held on 5 June 1994 (next to be held NA); results - NA; a major task of the new Assembly will be to ratify the constitution to drafted by the end of 1994

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IGADD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Marc A. BAAS
From the us chancery: 2,134 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20,008
From the us telephone: [251] (1) 550-666
From the us fax: (202) 328-7,950
From the us embassy: Entoto Street, Addis Ababa
From the us mailing address: P. O. Box 1014, Addis Ababa
From the us FAX: [251] (1) 552-191

Flag descriptionflag of Ethiopia: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow, and red; Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in Africa, and the colors of her flag were so often adopted by other African countries upon independence that they became known as the pan-African colors

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Ethiopia - Economy 1994
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Economy overview: With the independence of Eritrea on 27 April 1993, Ethiopia continues to face difficult economic problems as one of the poorest and least developed countries in Africa. (The accompanying analysis and figures predate the independence of Eritrea.) Its economy is based on subsistence agriculture, which accounts for about 45% of GDP, 90% of exports, and 80% of total employment; coffee generates 60% of export earnings. The manufacturing sector is heavily dependent on inputs from the agricultural sector. Over 90% of large-scale industry, but less than 10% of agriculture, is state run; the government is considering selling off a portion of state-owned plants. Favorable agricultural weather largely explains the 4.5% growth in output in FY89, whereas drought and deteriorating internal security conditions prevented growth in FY90. In 1991 the lack of law and order, particularly in the south, interfered with economic development and growth. In 1992, because of some easing of civil strife and aid from the outside world, the economy substantially improved.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 7.8% (FY93 est)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 47% of GDP and is the most important sector of the economy even though frequent droughts and poor cultivation practices keep farm output low; famines not uncommon; export crops of coffee and oilseeds grown partly on state farms; estimated 50% of agricultural production at subsistence level; principal crops and livestock - cereals, pulses, coffee, oilseeds, sugarcane, potatoes and other vegetables, hides and skins, cattle, sheep, goats

Industries: food processing, beverages, textiles, chemicals, metals processing, cement

Industrial production growth rate: -3.3% (FY92; accounts for 12% of GDP

Labor force: 18 million
By occupation agricultureandanimalhusbandry: 80%
By occupation governmentand services: 12%
By occupation industry and construction: 8% (1985)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA%

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues:$NA

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: 8 July - 7 July

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $189 million (f.o.b., FY91)
Commodities: coffee, leather products, gold, petroleum products
Partners: Germany, Japan, Saudi Arabia, France, Italy

Imports: $472 million (c.i.f., FY91)
Commodities: capital goods, consumer goods, fuel
Partners: US, Germany, Italy, Saudi Arabia, Japan

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $3.48 billion (1991)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: birr (Br) per US$1 - 5.0000 (fixed rate since 1992; fixed at 2.070 before 1992


Ethiopia - Energy 1994
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 650 million kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 10 kWh (1991)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Ethiopia - Communication 1994
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Ethiopia - Military 1994
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $NA, NA% of GDP

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Ethiopia - Transportation 1994
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 120
Usable: 84
With permanentsurface runways: 10
With runways over 3659 m: 1
With runways 2440-3659 m: 15
With runways 1220-2439 m: 83

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines

Railways

Roadways

Waterways

Merchant marine: 12 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 62,627 GRT/88,909 DWT, cargo 8, livestock carrier 1, oil tanker 2, roll on/roll off cargo 1

Ports and terminals


Ethiopia - Transnational issues 1994
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Disputes international: southern half of the boundary with Somalia is a Provisional Administrative Line; territorial dispute with Somalia over the Ogaden

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: transit hub for heroin originating in Southwest and Southeast Asia and destined for Europe and North America as well as cocaine destined for southern African markets; cultivates qat (chat) for local use and regional export


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