Hungary 1994Hungary

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Hungary
Hungary 

Austrian Airlines


Hungary - Introduction 1994
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Background: After World War II Hungary became part of Soviet-dominated Eastern Europe, and its government and economy were refashioned on the communist model. Increased nationalist opposition, which culminated in the government's announcement of withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact in 1956, led to massive military intervention by Moscow and the swift crushing of the revolt. In the more open GORBACHEV years, Hungary led the movement to dissolve the Warsaw Pact and steadily moved toward multiparty democracy and a market-oriented economy. Following the collapse of the USSR in 1991, Hungary has developed close political and economic relations with western Europe and is now being considered a possible future member of the European Union.


Hungary - Geography 1994
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Location: Central Europe, between Slovakia and Romania

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceEthnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe

Area
Total area total: 93,030 km²
Land: 92,340 km²

Land boundaries: total 1,989 km, Austria 366 km, Croatia 329 km, Romania 443 km, Serbia and Montenegro 151 km (all with Serbia), Slovakia 515 km, Slovenia 82 km, Ukraine 103 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

Climate: temperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling plains

Elevation

Natural resources: bauxite, coal, natural gas, fertile soils
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 50.7%
Permanent crops: 6.1%
Meadows and pastures: 12.6%
Forest and woodland: 18.3%
Other: 12.3%

Irrigated land: 1,750 km² (1989)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: levees are common along many streams, but flooding occurs almost every year

Geography
Note: landlocked; strategic location astride main land routes between Western Europe and Balkan Peninsula as well as between Ukraine and Mediterranean basin


Hungary - People 1994
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Population: 10,319,113 (July 1994 est.)
Growth rate: -0.03% (1994 est.)

Nationality: noun:Hungarian(s)

Ethnic groups: Hungarian 89.9%, Gypsy 4%, German 2.6%, Serb 2%, Slovak 0.8%, Romanian 0.7%

Languages: Hungarian 98.2%, other 1.8%

Religions: Roman Catholic 67.5%, Calvinist 20%, Lutheran 5%, atheist and other 7.5%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: -0.03% (1994 est.)

Birth rate: 12.46 births/1000 population (1994 est.)

Death rate: 12.72 deaths/1000 population (1994 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1994 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: air pollution; industrial and municipal pollution of Lake Balaton

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 12.5 deaths/1000 live births (1994 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 71.37 years
Male: 67.37 years
Female: 75.58 years (1994 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.83 children born/woman (1994 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
Total population: 99%
Male: 99%
Female: 98%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Hungary - Government 1994
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Hungary
Conventional short form:
local long form: Magyar Koztarsasag
local short form; Magyarorszag


Government type: republic

Capital: Budapest

Administrative divisions: 38 counties (megyek, singular - megye) and 1 capital city* (fovaros; Bacs-Kiskun, Baranya, Bekes, Bekescsaba, Borsod-Abauj-Zemplen, Budapest*, Csongrad, Debrecen, Dunaujvaros, Eger, Fejer, Gyor, Gyor-Moson-Sopron, Hajdu-Bihar, Heves, Hodmezovasarhely, Jasz-Nagykun-Szolnok, Kaposvar, Kecskemet, Komarom-Esztergom, Miskolc, Nagykanizsa, Nograd, Nyiregyhaza, Pecs, Pest, Somogy, Sopron, Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg, Szeged, Szekesfehervar, Szolnok, Szombathely, Tatabanya, Tolna, Vas, Veszprem, Zala, Zalaegerszeg

Dependent areas

Independence: 1001 (unification by King Stephen I)

National holiday: St. Stephen's Day (National Day), 20 August (commemorates the founding of Hungarian state circa 1000 A.D.)

Constitution: 18 August 1949, effective 20 August 1949, revised 19 April 1972; 18 October 1989 revision ensured legal rights for individuals and constitutional checks on the authority of the prime minister and also established the principle of parliamentary oversight

Legal system: in process of revision, moving toward rule of law based on Western model

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Arpad GONCZ (since 3 August 1990; previously interim president from 2 May 1990); election last held 3 August 1990 (next to be held NA 1995); results - President GONCZ elected by parliamentary vote; note - President GONCZ was elected by the National Assembly with a total of 295 votes out of 304 as interim President from 2 May 1990 until elected President
Head of government: Prime Minister Peter BOROSS (since 12 December 1993 on the death of Jozsef ANTALL); new prime minister will probably be Gyula HORN

Legislative branch: Ground Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Border Guard, Territorial Defense
National Assembly Orszaggyules: elections last held on 8 and 29 May 1994 (next to be held spring 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (386 total) Hungarian Socialist Party 209, Alliance of Free Democrats 70, Hungarian Democratic Forum 37, Independent Smallholders 26, Christian Democratic People's Party 22, Federation of Young Democrats 20, other 2

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: Australian Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CEI, CERN, COCOM (cooperating), CSCE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, G-9, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest), NSG, OAS (observer), PCA, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNOMOZ, UNOMUR, UNOSOM, UNTAC, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Donald BLINKEN
From the us chancery: 3,910 Shoemaker Street NW, Washington, DC 20,008
From the us telephone: [36] (1) 112-6,450
From the us fax: (202) 966-8,135
From the us consulates general: Los Angeles and New York
From the us embassy: V. Szabadsag Ter 12, Budapest
From the us mailing address: Am Embassy, Unit 1320, Budapest; APO AE 9,213
From the us FAX: [36] (1) 132-8,934

Flag descriptionflag of Hungary: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and green

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Hungary - Economy 1994
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Economy overview: Hungary is still in the midst of a difficult transition from a command to a market economy. Its economic reforms during the Communist era gave it a head start on this process, particularly in terms of attracting foreign investors - Hungary has accounted for about half of all foreign direct investment in Eastern Europe since 1989. Nonetheless, the economy continued to contract in 1993, with real GDP falling perhaps 1%. Although the privatization process has lagged, in December 1993 Hungary carried out the largest privatization yet in Eastern Europe, selling a controlling interest in the Matav telecommunications firm to private investors - including a 30% share to a US-German consortium for $875 million. Overall, about half of GDP now originates in the private sector. Unemployment rose to about 13% in 1993 while inflation remained above 20%, and falling exports pushed the trade deficit to about $3 billion. The government hopes that economic recovery in Western Europe in 1994 will boost exports, lower the trade deficit, and help jump-start the economy. The budget, however, is likely to remain a serious concern; depressed tax revenue pushed up the budget deficit in 1993.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: -1% (1993 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: including forestry, accounts for 15% of GDP and 16% of employment; highly diversified crop and livestock farming; principal crops - wheat, corn, sunflowers, potatoes, sugar beets; livestock - hogs, cattle, poultry, dairy products; self-sufficient in food output

Industries: mining, metallurgy, construction materials, processed foods, textiles, chemicals (especially pharmaceuticals), buses, automobiles

Industrial production growth rate: 4% (1993 est.)

Labor force: 5.4 million
By occupation services trade government andother: 44.8%
By occupation industry: 29.7%
By occupation agriculture: 16.1%
By occupation construction: 7.0% (1991)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 13% (1993)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues:$10.2 billion

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $8.9 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
Commodities: raw materials, semi-finished goods, chemicals 39.6%, machinery 14.5%, consumer goods 22.3%, food and agriculture 20.0%, fuels and energy 3.6% (January-June 1993)
Partners: EC 49.8% (Germany 27.8%, Italy 9.5%), Austria 10.7%, the FSU 13.1%, Eastern Europe 9.8% (1992)

Imports: $12.5 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
Commodities: fuels and energy 13.9%, raw materials, semi-finished goods, chemicals 35.9%, machinery 22.4%, consumer goods 21.8%, food and agriculture 6.0% (January-June 1993)
Partners: EC 42.8% (Germany 23.6%, Italy 6.3%), Austria 14.4%, the FSU 16.8%, Eastern Europe 9.2%

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $24.7 billion (November 1993)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: forints per US$1 - 93.46 (September 1993), 92.5 (1993), 78.99 (1992), 74.74 (1991), 63.21 (1990), 59.07 (1989)


Hungary - Energy 1994
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 30 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 3,000 kWh (1992)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Hungary - Communication 1994
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Hungary - Military 1994
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: 66.5 billion forints, NA% of GNP (1993 est.), note - conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate could produce misleading results

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Hungary - Transportation 1994
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 126
Usable: 65
With permanentsurface runways: 12
With runways over 3659 m: 1
With runways 2440-3659 m: 18
With runways 10602439 m: 31
Note: a C-130 can land on a 1,060-m airstrip

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: crude oil 1,204 km; natural gas 4,387 km (1991)

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 1,622 km (1988)

Merchant marine: 10 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) and 1 bulk totaling 46,121 GRT/61,613 DWT

Ports and terminals


Hungary - Transnational issues 1994
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Disputes international: Gabcikovo Dam dispute with Slovakia

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southeast Asia heroin transiting the Balkan route


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