Madagascar 1994Madagascar

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Madagascar
Madagascar 

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Madagascar - Introduction 1994
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Background: Formerly an independent kingdom Madagascar became a French colony in 1886 but regained its independence in 1960. During 1992-93 free presidential and National Assembly elections were held ending 17 years of single-party rule.


Madagascar - Geography 1994
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Location: Southern Africa, in the western Indian Ocean, 430 km east of Mozambique

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceAfrica, Standard Time Zones of the World

Area
Total area total: 587,040 km²
Land: 581,540 km²

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 4,828 km

Maritime claims
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical along coast, temperate inland, arid in south

Terrain: narrow coastal plain, high plateau and mountains in center

Elevation

Natural resources: graphite, chromite, coal, bauxite, salt, quartz, tar sands, semiprecious stones, mica, fish
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 4%
Permanent crops: 1%
Meadows and pastures: 58%
Forest and woodland: 26%
Other: 11%

Irrigated land: 9,000 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: subject to periodic cyclones

Geography
Note: world's fourth-largest island; strategic location along Mozambique Channel


Madagascar - People 1994
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Population: 13,427,758 (July 1994 est.)
Growth rate: 3.19% (1994 est.)

Nationality: noun:Malagasy (singular and plural)

Ethnic groups: Malayo-Indonesian (Merina and related Betsileo), Cotiers (mixed African, Malayo-Indonesian, and Arab ancestry - Betsimisaraka, Tsimihety, Antaisaka, Sakalava), French, Indian, Creole, Comoran

Languages: French (official), Malagasy (official)

Religions: indigenous beliefs 52%, Christian 41%, Muslim 7%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 3.19% (1994 est.)

Birth rate: 45.22 births/1000 population (1994 est.)

Death rate: 13.35 deaths/1000 population (1994 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1994 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: soil erosion results from deforestation and overgrazing; desertification; surface water contaminated with untreated sewage and other organic wastes; several species of flora and fauna unique to the island are endangered

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 89 deaths/1000 live births (1994 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 53.98 years
Male: 52.06 years
Female: 55.96 years (1994 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.68 children born/woman (1994 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Total population: 80%
Male: 88%
Female: 73%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Madagascar - Government 1994
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Madagascar
Conventional short form:
local long form: Republique de Madagascar
local short form

Former: Malagasy Republic

Government type: republic

Capital: Antananarivo

Administrative divisions: 6 provinces - Antananarivo, Antsiranana, Fianarantsoa, Mahajanga, Toamasina, Toliary

Dependent areas

Independence: 26 June 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 26 June (1960)

Constitution: 19 August 1992 by national referendum

Legal system: based on French civil law system and traditional Malagasy law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Albert ZAFY (since 9 March 1993); election last held on 10 February 1993 (next to be held 1998); results - Albert ZAFY (UNDD), 67%; Didier RATSIRAKA (AREMA), 33%
Head of government: Prime Minister Francisque RAVONY (since 9 August 1993)

Legislative branch: Popular Armed Forces (including Intervention Forces, Development Forces, Aeronaval Forces - including Navy and Air Force), Gendarmerie, Presidential Security Regiment
Senate: (Senat) two-thirds of upper house seats are to be filled by an electoral college made up of representatives of territorial collectivities; the remaining third is to be filled by presidential appointment, following nomination by economic, social, and cultural groups; the selection of senators was scheduled for March 1994
National Assembly: (Assemblee Nationale) elections last held on 16 June 1993 (next to be held June 1997); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (138 total) CFV coalition 76, PMDM/MFM 16, CSCD 11, Famima 10, RPSD 7, various pro-Ratsiraka groups 10, others 8
Note: the National Assembly has suspended its operations during 1992 and early 1993 in preparation for new legislative elections. In its place, an interim High Authority of State and a Social and Economic Recovery Council have been established

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme), High Constitutional Court (Haute Cour Constitutionnelle)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Dennis P. BARRETT
From the us chancery: 2,374 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,008
From the us telephone: [261] (2) 212-57, 200-89, 207-18
From the us consulates general: New York
From the us embassy: 14-16 Rue Rainitovo, Antsahavola, Antananarivo
From the us mailing address: B. P. 620, Antananarivo
From the us FAX: 261-234-539

Flag descriptionflag of Madagascar: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a vertical white band of the same width on hoist side

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Madagascar - Economy 1994
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Economy overview: Madagascar is one of the poorest countries in the world. Agriculture, including fishing and forestry, is the mainstay of the economy, accounting for over 30% of GDP and contributing more than 70% of total export earnings. Industry is largely confined to the processing of agricultural products and textile manufacturing; in 1991 it accounted for only 13% of GDP. In 1986 the government introduced a five-year development plan that stressed self-sufficiency in food (mainly rice) by 1990, increased production for exports, and reduced energy imports. Subsequently, growth in output has been held back because of protracted antigovernment strikes and demonstrations for political reform.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 1% (1992 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 31% of GDP; cash crops - coffee, vanilla, sugarcane, cloves, cocoa; food crops - rice, cassava, beans, bananas, peanuts; cattle raising widespread; almost self-sufficient in rice

Industries: agricultural processing (meat canneries, soap factories, breweries, tanneries, sugar refining plants), light consumer goods industries (textiles, glassware), cement, automobile assembly plant, paper, petroleum

Industrial production growth rate: 5.2% (1990 est.), accounts for 13% of GDP

Labor force: 4.9 million (90% nonsalaried family workers engaged in subsistence agriculture; 175,000 wage earners)
By occupation agriculture: 26%
By occupation domesticservice: 17%
By occupation industry: 15%
By occupation commerce: 14%
By occupation construction: 11%
By occupation services: 9%
By occupation transportation: 6%
By occupation other: 2%
By occupation note: 51% of population of working age (1985)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA%

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues:$250 million

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $312 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
Commodities: coffee 45%, vanilla 20%, cloves 11%, shellfish, sugar, petroleum products
Partners: France, Japan, Italy, Germany, US

Imports: $350 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
Commodities: intermediate manufactures 30%, capital goods 28%, petroleum 15%, consumer goods 14%, food 13%
Partners: France, Germany, UK, other EC, US

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $4.4 billion (1991)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Malagasy francs (FMG) per US$1 - 1,965.8 (January 1994), 1,864.0 (1992), 1,835.4 (1991), 1,454.6 (December 1990), 1,603.4 (1989)


Madagascar - Energy 1994
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 450 million kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 35 kWh (1991)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Madagascar - Communication 1994
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Madagascar - Military 1994
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: exchange rate conversion - $37 million, 2.2% of GDP (1991 est.)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Madagascar - Transportation 1994
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 140
Usable: 105
With permanentsurface runways: 30
With runways over 3659 m: 0
With runways 2440-3659 m: 3
With runways 1220-2439 m: 37

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: of local importance only; isolated streams and small portions of Canal des Pangalanes

Merchant marine: 10 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 23,620 GRT/33,173 DWT, cargo 5, chemical tanker 1, liquefied gas 1, oil tanker 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 2

Ports and terminals


Madagascar - Transnational issues 1994
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Disputes international: claims Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island, and Tromelin Island (all administered by France)

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis (cultivated and wild varieties) used mostly for domestic consumption


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