Mauritania 1994Mauritania

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Mauritania
Mauritania 

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Mauritania - Introduction 1994
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Background: Independent from France in 1960 Mauritania annexed the southern third of the former Spanish Sahara (now Western Sahara) in 1976 but relinquished it after three years of raids by the Polisario guerrilla front seeking independence for the territory. Opposition parties were legalized and a new constitution approved in 1991. Two multiparty presidential elections since then were widely seen as being flawed; Mauritania remains in reality a one-party state. The country continues to experience ethnic tensions between its black minority population and the dominant Maur (Arab-Berber) populace.


Mauritania - Geography 1994
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Location: Northern Africa, along the North Atlantic Ocean, between Western Sahara and Senegal

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceAfrica, Standard Time Zones of the World

Area
Total area total: 1,030,700 km²
Land: 1,030,400 km²

Land boundaries: total 5,074 km, Algeria 463 km, Mali 2,237 km, Senegal 813 km, Western Sahara 1,561 km

Coastline: 754 km

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Continental shelf: 200 nm or the edge of continental margin
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: desert; constantly hot, dry, dusty

Terrain: mostly barren, flat plains of the Sahara; some central hills

Elevation

Natural resources: iron ore, gypsum, fish, copper, phosphate
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 1%
Permanent crops: 0%
Meadows and pastures: 38%
Forest and woodland: 5%
Other: 56%

Irrigated land: 120 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: hot, dry, dust/sand-laden sirocco wind blows primarily in March and April

Geography
Note: most of the population concentrated along the Senegal River in the southern part of the country


Mauritania - People 1994
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Population: 2,192,777 (July 1994 est.)
Growth rate: 3.16% (1994 est.)

Nationality: noun:Mauritanian(s)

Ethnic groups: mixed Maur/black 40%, Maur 30%, black 30%

Languages: Hasaniya Arabic (official), Pular, Soninke, Wolof (official)

Religions: Muslim 100%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 3.16% (1994 est.)

Birth rate: 47.65 births/1000 population (1994 est.)

Death rate: 16.09 deaths/1000 population (1994 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1994 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: overgrazing, deforestation, and soil erosion aggravated by drought are contributing to desertification; water scarcity away from the Senegal which is the only perennial river

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 85.3 deaths/1000 live births (1994 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 48.06 years
Male: 45.23 years
Female: 51.01 years (1994 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.99 children born/woman (1994 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 10 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Total population: 34%
Male: 47%
Female: 21%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Mauritania - Government 1994
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Country name
Conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Mauritania
Conventional short form:
local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Islamiyah al Muritaniyah
local short form; Muritaniyah


Government type: republic

Capital: Nouakchott

Administrative divisions: 12 regions (regions, singular - region); Adrar, Assaba, Brakna, Dakhlet Nouadhibou, Gorgol, Guidimaka, Hodh ech Chargui, Hodh el Gharbi, Inchiri, Tagant, Tiris Zemmour, Trarza
Note: there may be a new capital district of Nouakchott

Dependent areas

Independence: 28 November 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 28 November (1960)

Constitution: 12 July 1991

Legal system: three-tier system:Islamic (Shari'a) courts, special courts, state security courts (in the process of being eliminated)

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state and head of government:President Col. Maaouya Ould Sid'Ahmed TAYA (since 12 December 1984; election last held January 1992 (next to be held January 1998; results - President Col. Maaouya Ould Sid 'Ahmed TAYA elected

Legislative branch: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Gendarmerie, National Guard, National Police, Presidential Guard
Senate Majlis alShuyukh: elections last held 15 April 1994 (one-third of the seats up for re-election in 1996)
National Assembly Majlis alWatani: elections last held 6 and 13 March 1992 (next to be held March 1997)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ABEDA, ACCT (associate), ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, CAEU, CCC, CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Gordon S. BROWN
From the us chancery: 2,129 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20,008
From the us telephone: [222] (2) 526-60 or 526-63
From the us embassy: address NA, Nouakchott
From the us mailing address: B. P. 222, Nouakchott
From the us FAX: [222] (2) 515-92

Flag descriptionflag of Mauritania: green with a yellow five-pointed star above a yellow, horizontal crescent; the closed side of the crescent is down; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Mauritania - Economy 1994
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Economy overview: A majority of the population still depends on agriculture and livestock for a livelihood, even though most of the nomads and many subsistence farmers were forced into the cities by recurrent droughts in the 1970s and 1980s. Mauritania has extensive deposits of iron ore, which account for almost 50% of total exports. The decline in world demand for this ore, however, has led to cutbacks in production. The nation's coastal waters are among the richest fishing areas in the world, but overexploitation by foreigners threatens this key source of revenue. The country's first deepwater port opened near Nouakchott in 1986. In recent years, drought and economic mismanagement have resulted in a substantial buildup of foreign debt. The government has begun the second stage of an economic reform program in consultation with the World Bank, the IMF, and major donor countries.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 3.3% (1993 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 25% of GDP (including fishing; largely subsistence farming and nomadic cattle and sheep herding except in Senegal river valley; crops - dates, millet, sorghum, root crops; fish products number-one export; large food deficit in years of drought

Industries: fish processing, mining of iron ore and gypsum

Industrial production growth rate: 4.4% (1988 est.), accounts for almost 30% of GDP

Labor force: 465,000 (1981 est.), 45,000 wage earners (1980)
By occupation agriculture: 47%
By occupation services: 29%
By occupation industry and commerce: 14%
By occupation government: 10%
By occupation note: 53% of population of working age (1985)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 20% (1991 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues:$280 million

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $432 million (f.o.b., 1992 est)
Commodities: iron ore, fish and fish products
Partners: Japan 27%, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg

Imports: $413 million (c.i.f., 1992 est)
Commodities: foodstuffs, consumer goods, petroleum products, capital goods
Partners: Algeria 15%, China 6%, US 3%, France, Germany, Spain, Italy

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $1.9 billion (1992 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: ouguiyas (UM) per US$1 - 124.480 (December 1993), 87.082 (1992), 81.946 (1991), 80.609 (1990), 83.051 (1989)


Mauritania - Energy 1994
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 135 million kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 70 kWh (1991)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Mauritania - Communication 1994
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Mauritania - Military 1994
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: exchange rate conversion - $40 million, 4.2% of GDP (1989)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Mauritania - Transportation 1994
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 28
Usable: 28
With permanentsurface runways: 9
With runways over 3659 m: 0
With runways 2440-3659 m: 5
With runways 1220-2439 m: 17

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: mostly ferry traffic on the Senegal River

Merchant marine: 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,290 GRT/1,840 DWT

Ports and terminals


Mauritania - Transnational issues 1994
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Disputes international: boundary with Senegal

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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