Mozambique 1994Mozambique

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Mozambique
Mozambique 

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Mozambique - Introduction 1994
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Background: Almost five centuries as a Portuguese colony came to a close with independence in 1975. Large-scale emigration by whites economic dependence on South Africa a severe drought and a prolonged civil war hindered the country's development. The ruling party formally abandoned Marxism in 1989 and a new constitution the following year provided for multiparty elections and a free market economy. A UN-negotiated peace agreement with rebel forces ended the fighting in 1992.


Mozambique - Geography 1994
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Location: Southern Africa, bordering the Mozambique Channel between South Africa and Tanzania opposite the island of Madagascar

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceAfrica, Standard Time Zones of the World

Area
Total area total: 801,590 km²
Land: 784,090 km²

Land boundaries: total 4,571 km, Malawi 1,569 km, South Africa 491 km, Swaziland 105 km, Tanzania 756 km, Zambia 419 km, Zimbabwe 1,231 km

Coastline: 2,470 km

Maritime claims
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical to subtropical

Terrain: mostly coastal lowlands, uplands in center, high plateaus in northwest, mountains in west

Elevation

Natural resources: coal, titanium
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 4%
Permanent crops: 0%
Meadows and pastures: 56%
Forest and woodland: 20%
Other: 20%

Irrigated land: 1,150 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: severe drought and floods occur in central and southern provinces

Geography


Mozambique - People 1994
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Population: 17,346,280 (July 1994 est.)
Growth rate: 5.87% (1994 est.)

Nationality: noun:Mozambican(s)

Ethnic groups: indigenous tribal groups, Europeans about 10,000, Euro-Africans 35,000, Indians 15,000

Languages: Portuguese (official), indigenous dialects

Religions: indigenous beliefs 60%, Christian 30%, Muslim 10%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 5.87% (1994 est.)

Birth rate: 44.97 births/1000 population (1994 est.)

Death rate: 16.33 deaths/1000 population (1994 est.)

Net migration rate: 30.1 migrant(s)/1000 population (1994 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: civil strife in the hinterlands has resulted in increased migration to urban and coastal areas with adverse environmental consequences; desertification; pollution of surface and coastal waters

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 128.7 deaths/1000 live births (1994 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 48.49 years
Male: 46.63 years
Female: 50.41 years (1994 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.25 children born/woman (1994 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Total population: 33%
Male: 45%
Female: 21%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Mozambique - Government 1994
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Mozambique
Conventional short form:
local long form: Republica Popular de Mocambique
local short form; Mocambique


Government type: republic

Capital: Maputo

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia; Cabo Delgado, Gaza, Inhambane, Manica, Maputo, Nampula, Niassa, Sofala, Tete, Zambezia

Dependent areas

Independence: 25 June 1975 (from Portugal)

National holiday: Independence Day, 25 June (1975)

Constitution: 30 November 1990

Legal system: based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Joaquim Alberto CHISSANO (since 6 November 1986)
Head of government: Prime Minister Mario da Graca MACHUNGO (since 17 July 1986)

Legislative branch: Army, Naval Command, Air and Air Defense Forces, Militia
Note: as of early 1994, Mozambique was demobilizing and reorganizing its defence forces

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO, FLS, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INMARSAT, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Dennis JETT
From the us chancery: Suite 570, 1990 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20,036
From the us telephone: [258] (1) 49-27-97
From the us fax: (202) 835-0245
From the us embassy: Avenida Kenneth Kuanda, 193 Maputo
From the us mailing address: P. O. Box 783, Maputo
From the us FAX: [258] (1) 49-01-14

Flag descriptionflag of Mozambique: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), black, and yellow with a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; the black band is edged in white; centered in the triangle is a yellow five-pointed star bearing a crossed rifle and hoe in black superimposed on an open white book

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Mozambique - Economy 1994
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Economy overview: One of Africa's poorest countries, Mozambique has failed to exploit the economic potential of its sizable agricultural, hydropower, and transportation resources. Indeed, national output, consumption, and investment declined throughout the first half of the 1980s because of internal disorders, lack of government administrative control, and a growing foreign debt. A sharp increase in foreign aid, attracted by an economic reform policy, resulted in successive years of economic growth in the late 1980s, but aid has declined steadily since 1989. Agricultural output is at only 75% of its 1981 level, and grain has to be imported. Industry operates at only 20-40% of capacity. The economy depends heavily on foreign assistance to keep afloat. Peace accords signed in October 1992 improved chances of foreign investment, aided IMF-supported economic reforms, and supported continued economic recovery.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 4.1% (1993 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 50% of GDP and about 90% of exports; cash crops - cotton, cashew nuts, sugarcane, tea, shrimp; other crops - cassava, corn, rice, tropical fruits; not self-sufficient in food

Industries: food, beverages, chemicals (fertilizer, soap, paints), petroleum products, textiles, nonmetallic mineral products (cement, glass, asbestos), tobacco

Industrial production growth rate: 5% (1989 est.)

Labor force: NA
By occupation: 90% engaged in agriculture
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 50% (1989 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues:$252 million

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $164.4 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
Commodities: shrimp 48%, cashews 21%, sugar 10%, copra 3%, citrus 3%
Partners: US, Western Europe, Germany, Japan

Imports: $1.03 billion (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
Commodities: food, clothing, farm equipment, petroleum
Partners: US, Western Europe, USSR

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $5 billion (1992 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: meticais (Mt) per US$1 - 4,941.3 (October 1993), 2,550.40 (1992), 1,763.99 (1991), 1,053.09 (1990), 844.34 (1989)


Mozambique - Energy 1994
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 1.745 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 115 kWh (1991)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Mozambique - Communication 1994
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Mozambique - Military 1994
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: exchange rate conversion - $118 million, 8% of GDP (1993)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Mozambique - Transportation 1994
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 194
Usable: 134
With permanentsurface runways: 24
With runways over 3659 m: 0
With runways 2440-3659 m: 5
With runways 1220-2439 m: 28

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: crude oil (not operating) 306 km; petroleum products 289 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: about 3,750 km of navigable routes

Merchant marine: 4 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,686 GRT/9,742 DWT

Ports and terminals


Mozambique - Transnational issues 1994
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Disputes international: none

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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