Namibia 1994Namibia

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Iberostar Hotels

Namibia - Introduction 1994
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Background: South Africa occupied the German colony of Sud-West Afrika during World War I and administered it as a mandate until after World War II when it annexed the territory. In 1966 the Marxist South-West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO) guerrilla group launched a war of independence for the area that was soon named Namibia but it was not until 1988 that South Africa agreed to end its administration in accordance with a UN peace plan for the entire region. Independence came in 1990.

Namibia - Geography 1994
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Location: Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean between Angola and South Africa

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceAfrica, Standard Time Zones of the World

Total area total: 825,418 km²
Land: 825,418 km²

Land boundaries: total 3,824 km, Angola 1,376 km, Botswana 1,360 km, South Africa 855 km, Zambia 233 km

Coastline: 1,572 km

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: desert; hot, dry; rainfall sparse and erratic

Terrain: mostly high plateau; Namib Desert along coast; Kalahari Desert in east


Natural resources: diamonds, copper, uranium, gold, lead, tin, lithium, cadmium, zinc, salt, vanadium, natural gas, fish; suspected deposits of oil, natural gas, coal, iron ore
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 1%
Permanent crops: 0%
Meadows and pastures: 64%
Forest and woodland: 22%
Other: 13%

Irrigated land: 40 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: NA


Namibia - People 1994
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Population: 1,595,567 (July 1994 est.)
Growth rate: 3.45% (1994 est.)

Nationality: noun:Namibian(s)

Ethnic groups: black 86%, white 6.6%, mixed 7.4%
Note: about 50% of the population belong to the Ovambo tribe and 9% to the Kavangos tribe

Languages: English 7% (official), Afrikaans common language of most of the population and about 60% of the white population, German 32%, indigenous languages

Religions: Christian

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 3.45% (1994 est.)

Birth rate: 43.4 births/1000 population (1994 est.)

Death rate: 8.87 deaths/1000 population (1994 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1994 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: very limited natural water resources; desertification

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 61.8 deaths/1000 live births (1994 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 61.65 years
Male: 58.97 years
Female: 64.4 years (1994 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.4 children born/woman (1994 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1960)
Total population: 38%
Male: 45%
Female: 31%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Namibia - Government 1994
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Country name
Conventional long form:
Republic of Namibia
conventional short form

Government type: republic

Capital: Windhoek

Administrative divisions: 13 districts; Erango, Hardap, Karas, Khomas, Kunene, Liambezi, Ohanguena, Okarango, Omaheke, Omusat, Oshana, Oshikoto, Otjozondjupa

Dependent areas

Independence: 21 March 1990 (from South African mandate)

National holiday: Independence Day, 21 March (1990)

Constitution: ratified 9 February 1990; effective 12 March 1990

Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law and 1990 constitution

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state and head of government:President Sam NUJOMA (since 21 March 1990; election last held 16 February 1990 (next to be held March 1995; results - Sam NUJOMA was elected president by the Constituent Assembly (now the National Assembly)

Legislative branch: National Defense Force (Army), Police
National Council: elections last held 30 November-3 December 1992 (next to be held by December 1998); seats - (26 total) SWAPO 19, DTA 6, UDF 1
National Assembly: elections last held on 7-11 November 1989 (next to be held by November 1994); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (72 total) SWAPO 41, DTA 21, UDF 4, ACN 3, NNF 1, FCN 1, NPF 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, FLS, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OAU, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation
From the us chief of mission: (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Howard F. JETER
From the us chancery: 1605 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,009
From the us telephone: [264] (61) 221-601, 222-675, 222-680
From the us fax: (202) 986-0443
From the us embassy: Ausplan Building, 14 Lossen St., Windhoek
From the us mailing address: P. O. Box 9,890, Windhoek 9,000
From the us FAX: [264] (61) 229-792

Flag descriptionflag of Namibia: a large blue triangle with a yellow sunburst fills the upper left section, and an equal green triangle (solid) fills the lower right section; the triangles are separated by a red stripe that is contrasted by two narrow white-edge borders

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Namibia - Economy 1994
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Economy overview: The economy is heavily dependent on the mining industry to extract and process minerals for export. Mining accounts for almost 25% of GDP. Namibia is the fourth-largest exporter of nonfuel minerals in Africa and the world's fifth-largest producer of uranium. Alluvial diamond deposits are among the richest in the world, making Namibia a primary source for gem-quality diamonds. Namibia also produces large quantities of lead, zinc, tin, silver, and tungsten. More than half the population depends on agriculture (largely subsistence agriculture) for its livelihood.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 3.5% (1992)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 15% of GDP; mostly subsistence farming; livestock raising major source of cash income; crops - millet, sorghum, peanuts; fish catch potential of over 1 million metric tons not being fulfilled, 1988 catch reaching only 384,000 metric tons; not self-sufficient in food

Industries: meatpacking, fish processing, dairy products, mining (copper, lead, zinc, diamond, uranium)

Industrial production growth rate: 4.9% (1991; accounts for 35% of GDP, including mining

Labor force: 500,000
By occupation agriculture: 60%
By occupation industry and commerce: 19%
By occupation services: 8%
By occupation government: 7%
By occupation mining: 6% (1981est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 30% (1992)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues:$941 million

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $1.289 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
Commodities: diamonds, copper, gold, zinc, lead, uranium, cattle, processed fish, karakul skins
Partners: Switzerland, South Africa, Germany, Japan

Imports: $1.178 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
Commodities: foodstuffs, petroleum products and fuel, machinery and equipment
Partners: South Africa, Germany, US, Switzerland

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: about $220 million (1992 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: South African rand (R) per US$1 - 3.4096 (January 1994), 3.2678 (1993), 2.8497 (1992), 2.7653 (1991), 2.5863 (1990), 2.6166 (1989)

Namibia - Energy 1994
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 1.29 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 850 kWh (1991)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Namibia - Communication 1994
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Namibia - Military 1994
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: exchange rate conversion - $66 million, 3.4% of GDP (FY92)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Namibia - Transportation 1994
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 136
Usable: 109
With permanentsurface runways: 21
With runways over 3659 m: 1
With runways 2440-3659 m: 4
With runways 1220-2439 m: 64

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways






Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Namibia - Transnational issues 1994
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Disputes international: short section of boundary with Botswana is indefinite; quadripoint with Botswana, Zambia, and Zimbabwe is in disagreement; dispute with South Africa over Walvis Bay and 12 offshore islands has been resolved and these territories were transferred to Namibian sovereignty on 1 March 1994

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs

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