Nicaragua 1994Nicaragua

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Nicaragua
Nicaragua 

Sesame


Nicaragua - Introduction 1994
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Background: Settled as a colony of Spain in the 1520s Nicaragua gained its independence in 1821. Violent opposition to governmental manipulation and corruption spread to all classes by 1978 and resulted in a short-lived civil war that brought the Marxist Sandinista guerrillas to power in 1979. Nicaraguan aid to leftist rebels in El Salvador caused the US to sponsor anti-Sandinista contra guerrillas through much of the 1980s. Free elections in 1990 saw the Sandinistas defeated.


Nicaragua - Geography 1994
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Location: Middle America, between Costa Rica and Honduras

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceCentral America and the Caribbean, South America

Area
Total area total: 129,494 km²
Land: 120,254 km²

Land boundaries: total 1,231 km, Costa Rica 309 km, Honduras 922 km

Coastline: 910 km

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 25-nm security zone (status of claim uncertain)
Continental shelf: not specified
Territorial sea: 200 nm

Climate: tropical in lowlands, cooler in highlands

Terrain: extensive Atlantic coastal plains rising to central interior mountains; narrow Pacific coastal plain interrupted by volcanoes

Elevation

Natural resources: gold, silver, copper, tungsten, lead, zinc, timber, fish
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 9%
Permanent crops: 1%
Meadows and pastures: 43%
Forest and woodland: 35%
Other: 12%

Irrigated land: 850 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: subject to destructive earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides, and occasionally severe hurricanes

Geography


Nicaragua - People 1994
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Population: 4,096,689 (July 1994 est.)
Growth rate: 2.68% (1994 est.)

Nationality: noun:Nicaraguan(s)

Ethnic groups: mestizo 69%, white 17%, black 9%, Indian 5%

Languages: Spanish (official)
Note: English- and Indian-speaking minorities on Atlantic coast

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%, Protestant 5%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 2.68% (1994 est.)

Birth rate: 34.66 births/1000 population (1994 est.)

Death rate: 6.69 deaths/1000 population (1994 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.22 migrant(s)/1000 population (1994 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 52.5 deaths/1000 live births (1994 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 64.02 years
Male: 61.18 years
Female: 66.96 years (1994 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.33 children born/woman (1994 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1971)
Total population: 57%
Male: 57%
Female: 57%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Nicaragua - Government 1994
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Nicaragua
Conventional short form:
local long form: Republica de Nicaragua
local short form


Government type: republic

Capital: Managua

Administrative divisions: 17 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento; Boaco, Carazo, Chinandega, Chontales, Esteli, Granada, Jinotega, Leon, Madriz, Managua, Masaya, Matagalpa, North Atlantic Coast Autonomous Zone (RAAN), Nueva Segovia, Rio San Juan, Rivas, South Atlantic Coast Autonomous Zone (RAAS)

Dependent areas

Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

Constitution: 9 January 1987

Legal system: civil law system; Supreme Court may review administrative acts

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 16 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state and head of government:President Violeta Barrios de CHAMORRO (since 25 April 1990; Vice President Virgilio GODOY Reyes (since 25 April 1990; election last held on 25 February 1990 (next to be held November 1996; results - Violeta Barrios de CHAMORRO (UNO) 54.7%, Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra (FSLN) 40.8%, other 4.5%

Legislative branch: Ground Forces, Navy, Air Force
National Assembly Asamblea Nacional: elections last held on 25 February 1990 (next to be held November 1996); results - UNO 53.9%, FSLN 40.8%, PSC 1.6%, MUR 1.0%; seats - (92 total) UNO 41, FSLN 39, "Centrist" (Dissident UNO) 12

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), LORCS, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador John MAISTO
From the us chancery: 1627 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,009
From the us telephone: [505] (2) 666,010 or 666,013, 666,015 through 18, 666,026, 666,027, 666,032 through 34
From the us consulates general: Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco
From the us embassy: Kilometer 4.5 Carretera Sur., Managua
From the us mailing address: APO AA 34,021
From the us FAX: [505] (2) 666,046

Flag descriptionflag of Nicaragua: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue with the national coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a triangle encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on the top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom; similar to the flag of El Salvador, which features a round emblem encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL centered in the white band; also similar to the flag of Honduras, which has five blue stars arranged in an X pattern centered in the white band

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Nicaragua - Economy 1994
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Economy overview: Since March 1991, when President CHAMORRO began an ambitious economic stabilization program, Nicaragua has had considerable success in reducing inflation and obtaining substantial economic aid from abroad. Annual inflation fell from more than 750% in 1991 to less than 5% in 1992. Inflation rose again to an estimated 20% in 1993, although this increase was due almost entirely to a large currency devaluation in January. As of early 1994, the government was close to finalizing an enhanced structural adjustment facility with the IMF, after the previous standby facility expired in early 1993. Despite these successes, achieving overall economic growth in an economy scarred by misguided economic values and civil war during the 1980s has proved elusive. Economic growth was flat in 1992 and slightly negative in 1993. Nicaragua's per capita foreign debt is one of the highest in the world; nonetheless, as of late 1993, Nicaragua was current on its post-1988 debt as well as on payments to the international financial institutions. Definition of property rights remains a problem; ownership disputes over large tracts of land, businesses, and homes confiscated by the previous government have yet to be resolved.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: -0.5% (1993 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: crops account for about 15% of GDP; export crops - coffee, bananas, sugarcane, cotton; food crops - rice, corn, cassava, citrus fruit, beans; also produces a variety of animal products - beef, veal, pork, poultry, dairy products; normally self-sufficient in food

Industries: food processing, chemicals, metal products, textiles, clothing, petroleum refining and distribution, beverages, footwear

Industrial production growth rate: NA%; accounts for 20-25% of GDP

Labor force: 1.086 million
By occupation services: 43%
By occupation agriculture: 44%
By occupation industry: 13% (1986)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 13%; underemployment 50% (1991)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues:$375 million (1992)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $228 million (f.o.b., 1992)
Commodities: foodstuffs, cotton, coffee, chemicals
Partners: EC 26%, US 26%, Japan, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Mexico (1992)

Imports: $907 million (c.i.f., 1992)
Commodities: petroleum, food, chemicals, machinery, clothing
Partners: US 26%, Venezuela, Costa Rica, EC, Guatemala (1992)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $10.5 billion ( 1992)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: gold cordobas (C$) per US$1 - 6 (10 January 1993), 5 (1992; note - gold cordoba replaced cordoba as Nicaragua's currency in 1991 (exchange rate of old cordoba had reached per US$1 - 25,000,000 by March 1992)


Nicaragua - Energy 1994
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 1.118 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 290 kWh (1992)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Nicaragua - Communication 1994
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Nicaragua - Military 1994
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: exchange rate conversion - $43.0 million, 1.6% of GDP (1992)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Nicaragua - Transportation 1994
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 208
Usable: 149
With permanentsurface runways: 11
With runways over 3659 m: 0
With runways 2440-3659 m: 2
With runways 1220-2439 m: 13

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: crude oil 56 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 2,220 km, including 2 large lakes

Merchant marine: 2 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,161 GRT/2,500 DWT

Ports and terminals


Nicaragua - Transnational issues 1994
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Disputes international: territorial disputes with Colombia over the Archipelago de San Andres y Providencia and Quita Sueno Bank; International Court of Justice (ICJ) referred the maritime boundary question in the Golfo de Fonseca to an earlier agreement in this century and advised that some tripartite resolution among El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua likely would be required

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for cocaine destined for the US


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