Norway 1994Norway

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Norway
Norway 

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Norway - Introduction 1994
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Background: Norway gained its independence from Sweden in 1905. As a separate realm, Norway stayed free of World War I but suffered German occupation in World War II. Discovery of oil and gas in adjacent waters in the late 1960s gave a strong boost to Norway's economic fortunes. Norway is planning for the time when its oil and gas reserves are depleted and is focusing on containing spending on its extensive welfare system. It has decided at this time not to join the European Union and the new euro currency regime.


Norway - Geography 1994
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Location: Nordic State, Northern Europe, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Sweden

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceArctic Region, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World

Area
Total area total: 324,220 km²
Land: 307,860 km²

Land boundaries: total 2,515 km, Finland 729 km, Sweden 1,619 km, Russia 167 km

Coastline: 21,925 km (includes mainland 3,419 km, large islands 2,413 km, long fjords, numerous small islands, and minor indentations 16,093 km)

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 10 nm
Continental shelf: to depth of exploitation
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 4 nm

Climate: temperate along coast, modified by North Atlantic Current; colder interior; rainy year-round on west coast

Terrain: glaciated; mostly high plateaus and rugged mountains broken by fertile valleys; small, scattered plains; coastline deeply indented by fjords; arctic tundra in north

Elevation

Natural resources: petroleum, copper, natural gas, pyrites, nickel, iron ore, zinc, lead, fish, timber, hydropower
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 3%
Permanent crops: 0%
Meadows and pastures: 0%
Forest and woodland: 27%
Other: 70%

Irrigated land: 950 km² (1989)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: NA

Geography
Note: about two-thirds mountains; some 50,000 islands off its much indented coastline; strategic location adjacent to sea lanes and air routes in North Atlantic; one of most rugged and longest coastlines in world; Norway and Turkey only NATO members having a land boundary with Russia


Norway - People 1994
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Population: 4,314,604 (July 1994 est.)
Growth rate: 0.39% (1994 est.)

Nationality: noun:Norwegian(s)

Ethnic groups: Germanic (Nordic, Alpine, Baltic), Lapps (Sami) 20,000

Languages: Norwegian (official)
Note: small Lapp- and Finnish-speaking minorities

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 87.8% (state church), other Protestant and Roman Catholic 3.8%, none 3.2%, unknown 5.2% (1980)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 0.39% (1994 est.)

Birth rate: 13.32 births/1000 population (1994 est.)

Death rate: 10.44 deaths/1000 population (1994 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.01 migrant(s)/1000 population (1994 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: water pollution; acid rain damaging forests and adversely affecting lakes, threatening fish stocks; air pollution from vehicle emissions

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 6.3 deaths/1000 live births (1994 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 77.38 years
Male: 74.02 years
Female: 80.94 years (1994 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.81 children born/woman (1994 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1976 est.)
Total population: 99%
Male: NA%
Female: NA%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Norway - Government 1994
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Country name
Conventional long form: Kingdom of Norway
Conventional short form:
local long form: Kongeriket Norge
local short form; Norge


Government type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Oslo

Administrative divisions: 19 provinces (fylker, singular - fylke; Akershus, Aust-Agder, Buskerud, Finnmark, Hedmark, Hordaland, More og Romsdal, Nordland, Nord-Trondelag, Oppland, Oslo, Ostfold, Rogaland, Sogn og Fjordane, Sor-Trondelag, Telemark, Troms, Vest-Agder, Vestfold

Dependent areas: (3) Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, Svalbard

Independence: 26 October 1905 (from Sweden)

National holiday: Constitution Day, 17 May (1814)

Constitution: 17 May 1814, modified in 1884

Legal system: mixture of customary law, civil law system, and common law traditions; Supreme Court renders advisory opinions to legislature when asked; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: King HARALD V (since 17 January 1991); Heir Apparent Crown Prince HAAKON MAGNUS (born 20 July 1973)
Head of government: Prime Minister Gro Harlem BRUNDTLAND (since 3 November 1990)

Legislative branch: Norwegian Army, Royal Norwegian Navy, Royal Norwegian Air Force, Home Guard
Storting: elections last held on 13 September 1993 (next to be held September 1997); results - Labor 37.1%, Center Party 18.5%, Conservatives 15.6%, Christian Peoples' 8.4%, Socialist Left 7.9%, Progress 6%, Left Party 3.6%, Red Electoral Alliance 1.2%; seats - (165 total) Labor 67, Center Party 32, Consevatives 18, Christian Peoples' 13, Socialist Left 13, Progress 10, Left Party 1, Red Electoral Alliance 1, unawarded 10
Lagting: Storting elects one-fourth of its member to upper house

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Hoyesterett)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, CERN, COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, ESA, FAO, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest), NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OECD, ONUSAL, PCA, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNMOGIP, UNOSOM, UNPROFOR, UNTAC, UNTSO, UPU, WEU (associate), WHO, WIPO, WMO, ZC

Diplomatic representation
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Thomas A. LOFTUS
From the us chancery: 2,720 34th Street NW, Washington, DC 20,008
From the us telephone: [47] 22-44-85-50
From the us fax: (202) 337-0870
From the us consulates general: Houston, Los Angeles, Minneapolis, New York, and San Francisco
From the us consulates: Miami
From the us embassy: Drammensveien 18, 0244 Oslo 2
From the us mailing address: PSC 69, Box 1000, APO AE 9,707
From the us FAX: [47] 22-43-07-77

Flag descriptionflag of Norway: red with a blue cross outlined in white that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Norway - Economy 1994
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Economy overview: Norway has a mixed economy involving a combination of free market activity and government intervention. The government controls key areas, such as the vital petroleum sector (through large-scale state enterprises) and extensively subsidizes agriculture, fishing, and areas with sparse resources. Norway also maintains an extensive welfare system that helps propel public sector expenditures to slightly more than 50% of the GDP and results in one of the highest average tax burdens in the world (54%). A small country with a high dependence on international trade, Norway is basically an exporter of raw materials and semiprocessed goods, with an abundance of small- and medium-sized firms, and is ranked among the major shipping nations. The country is richly endowed with natural resources - petroleum, hydropower, fish, forests, and minerals - and is highly dependent on its oil sector to keep its economy afloat. Although one of the government's main priorities is to reduce this dependency, this situation is not likely to improve for years to come. The government also hopes to reduce unemployment and strengthen and diversify the economy through tax reform and a series of expansionary budgets. The budget deficit is expected to hit a record 8% of GDP because of welfare spending and bail-outs of the banking system. Unemployment continues at record levels of over 10% - including those in job programs - because of the weakness of the economy outside the oil sector. Economic growth was only 1.6% in 1993, while inflation was a moderate 2.3%. Oslo, a member of the European Free Trade Area, has applied for membership in the European Union and continues to deregulate and harmonize with EU regulations. Membership is expected in early 1995.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 1.6% (1993)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 3% of GDP and about 6% of labor force; among world's top 10 fishing nations; livestock output exceeds value of crops; over half of food needs imported; fish catch of 1.76 million metric tons in 1989

Industries: petroleum and gas, food processing, shipbuilding, pulp and paper products, metals, chemicals, timber, mining, textiles, fishing

Industrial production growth rate: 6.2% (1992; accounts for 14% of GDP

Labor force: 2.004 million (1992)
By occupation services: 39.1%
By occupation commerce: 17.6%
By occupation oil andmanufacturing: 16.0%
By occupation bankingandfinancialservices: 7.6%
By occupation transportationandcommunications: 7.8%
By occupation construction: 6.1%
By occupation agriculture forestry and fishing: 5.5% (1989)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 5.5% (excluding people in job-training programs; 1993 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues:$45.3 billion

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $32.1 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
Commodities: petroleum and petroleum products 40%, metals and products 10.6%, fish and fish products 6.9%, chemicals 6.4%, natural gas 6.0%, ships 5.4%
Partners: EC 66.3%, Nordic countries 16.3%, developing countries 8.4%, US 6.0%, Japan 1.8% (1993)

Imports: $24.8 billion (c.i.f., 1993)
Commodities: machinery and equipment 38.9%, chemicals and other industrial inputs 26.6%, manufactured consumer goods 17.8%, foodstuffs 6.4%
Partners: EC 48.6%, Nordic countries 25.1%, developing countries 9.6%, US 8.1%, Japan 8.0% (1993)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $6.5 billion (1992 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Norwegian kroner (NKr) per US$1 - 7.4840 (January 1994), 7.0941 (1993), 6.2145 (1992), 6.4829 (1991), 6.2597 (1990), 6.9045 (1989)


Norway - Energy 1994
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 111 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 25,850 kWh (1992)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Norway - Communication 1994
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Norway - Military 1994
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: exchange rate conversion - $3.1 billion, 3.2% of GDP (1993)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Norway - Transportation 1994
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 103
Usable: 102
With permanentsurface runways: 65
With runways over 3659 m: 0
With runways 2440-3659 m: 13
With runways 1220-2439 m: 15

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: refined products 53 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 1,577 km along west coast; 2.4 m draft vessels maximum

Merchant marine: 764 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 20,793,968 GRT/35,409,472 DWT, bulk 159, cargo 92, chemical tanker 85, combination bulk 8, combination ore/oil 28, container 17, liquefied gas 81, oil tanker 162, passenger 13, passenger-cargo 2, railcar carrier 1, refrigerated cargo 13, roll-on/roll-off cargo 54, short-sea passenger 21, vehicle carrier 28
Note: the government has created a captive register, the Norwegian International Ship Register (NIS), as a subset of the Norwegian register; ships on the NIS enjoy many benefits of flags of convenience and do not have to be crewed by Norwegians; the majority of ships (761) under the Norwegian flag are now registered with the NIS

Ports and terminals


Norway - Transnational issues 1994
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Disputes international: territorial claim in Antarctica (Queen Maud Land; dispute between Denmark and Norway over maritime boundary in Arctic Ocean between Greenland and Jan Mayen has been settled by the International Court of Justice; maritime boundary dispute with Russia over portion of Barents Sea

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for drugs shipped via the CIS and Baltic states for the European market


Iberia


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