Statistical information Albania 1994Albania

Map of Albania | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Albania in the World
Albania in the World


Albania - Introduction 1994
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Background: In 1990 Albania ended 44 years of xenophobic communist rule and established a multiparty democracy. The transition has proven difficult as corrupt governments have tried to deal with severe unemployment and widespread gangsterism.

Albania - Geography 1994
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Location: Balkan State, Southeastern Europe, on the Balkan Peninsula between Serbia and Montenegro and Greece

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceAfrica, Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World

Total area total: 28,750 km²
Land: 27,400 km²

Land boundaries: total 720 km, Greece 282 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 151 km, Serbia and Montenegro 287 km (114 km with Serbia, 173 km with Montenegro)

Coastline: 362 km

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: not specified
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry summers; interior is cooler and wetter

Terrain: mostly mountains and hills; small plains along coast


Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, timber, nickel
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 21%
Permanent crops: 4%
Meadows and pastures: 15%
Forest and woodland: 38%
Other: 22%

Irrigated land: 4,230 km² (1989)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: subject to destructive earthquakes; tsunami occur along southwestern coast

Note: strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links Adriatic Sea to Ionian Sea and Mediterranean Sea)

Albania - People 1994
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Population: 3,374,085 (July 1994 est.)
Note: IMF, working with Albanian government figures estimates the population at 3,120,000 in 1993 and that the population has fallen since 1990
Growth rate: 1.19% (1994 est.)

Nationality: noun:Albanian(s)

Ethnic groups: Albanian 95%, Greeks 3%, other 2% (Vlachs, Gypsies, Serbs, and Bulgarians) (1989 est.)

Languages: Albanian (Tosk is the official dialect), Greek

Religions: Muslim 70%, Greek Orthodox 20%, Roman Catholic 10%
Note: all mosques and churches were closed in 1967 and religious observances prohibited; in November 1990, Albania began allowing private religious practice

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.19% (1994 est.)

Birth rate: 22.46 births/1000 population (1994 est.)

Death rate: 5.32 deaths/1000 population (1994 est.)

Net migration rate: -5.27 migrant(s)/1000 population (1994 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: deforestation

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 30 deaths/1000 live births (1994 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 73.4 years
Male: 70.42 years
Female: 76.61 years (1994 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.78 children born/woman (1994 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 9 and over can read and write (1955)
Total population: 72%
Male: 80%
Female: 63%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Albania - Government 1994
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Albania
Conventional short form:
local long form: Republika e Shqiperise
local short form; Shqiperia

Former: People's Socialist Republic of Albania

Government type: nascent democracy

Capital: Tirane

Administrative divisions: 26 districts (rrethe, singular - rreth; Berat, Dibre, Durres, Elbasan, Fier, Gjirokaster, Gramsh, Kolonje, Korce, Kruje, Kukes, Lezhe, Librazhd, Lushnje, Mat, Mirdite, Permet, Pogradec, Puke, Sarande, Shkoder, Skrapar, Tepelene, Tirane, Tropoje, Vlore

Dependent areas

Independence: 28 November 1912 (from Ottoman Empire)

National holiday: Liberation Day, 28 November (1944; changed by decree on 12 November 1993)

Constitution: an interim basic law was approved by the People's Assembly on 29 April 1991; a new constitution was to be drafted for adoption in 1992, but is still in process

Legal system: has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age, universal and compulsory

Executive branch
Chief of state: President of the Republic Sali BERISHA (since 9 April 1992)
Head of government: Prime Minister of the Council of Ministers Aleksander Gabriel MEKSI (since 10 April 1992)

Legislative branch: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Interior Ministry Troops

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: BSEC, CCC, CE (guest), CSCE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, NACC, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador William E. RYERSON
From the us chancery: Suite 1010, 1511 K Street NW, Washington, DC 20,005
From the us telephone: 355-42-32,875, 33,520
From the us fax: (202) 628-7,342
From the us embassy: Rruga E. Elbansanit 103, Tirane
From the us mailing address: PSC 59, Box 100 (A), APO AE 9,624
From the us FAX: 355-42-32,222

Flag descriptionflag of Albania: red with a black two-headed eagle in the center

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Albania - Economy 1994
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Economy overview: An extremely poor country by European standards, Albania is making the difficult transition to a more open-market economy. The economy rebounded in 1993 after a severe depression accompanying the collapse of the previous centrally planned system in 1990 and 1991. Stabilization policies, including public sector layoffs and reduced social services, have improved the government's fiscal situation and reduced inflation. The recovery was spurred by the remittances of some 5% of the population which works abroad, mostly in Greece and Italy. Foreign assistance and humanitarian aid also supported the recovery. Most agricultural land was privatized in 1992, substantially improving peasant incomes. Albania's limited industrial sector, now less than one-sixth of GDP, continued to decline in 1993. A sharp fall in chromium prices reduced hard currency receipts from the mining sector. Large segments of the population, especially those living in urban areas, continue to depend on humanitarian aid to meet basic food requirements. Unemployment remains a severe problem accounting for approximately one-fifth of the work force. Growth is expected to continue in 1994, but could falter if Albania becomes involved in the conflict in the former Yugoslavia, workers' remittances from Greece are reduced, or foreign assistance declines.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 11% (1993)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 55% of GDP; arable land: per capita among lowest in Europe; 80% of arable land: now in private hands; one-half of work force engaged in farming; produces wide range of temperate-zone crops and livestock

Industries: food processing, textiles and clothing, lumber, oil, cement, chemicals, mining, basic metals, hydropower

Industrial production growth rate: -10% (1993 est.), accounts for 16% of GDP (1993 est.)

Labor force: 1.5 million (1987)
By occupation agriculture: 60%
By occupation industry and commerce: 40% (1986)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 18% (1993 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues:$1.1 billion

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $70 million (f.o.b., 1992)
Commodities: asphalt, metals and metallic ores, electricity, crude oil, vegetables, fruits, tobacco
Partners: Italy, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Germany, Greece, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary

Imports: $524 million (f.o.b., 1992)
Commodities: machinery, consumer goods, grains
Partners: Italy, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Germany, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria, Greece

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $724 million (1993 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: leke (L) per US$1 - 99 (January 1994), 97 (January 1993), 50 (January 1992), 25 (September 1991)

Albania - Energy 1994
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 5 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 1,520 kWh (1992)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Albania - Communication 1994
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Albania - Military 1994
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: 215 million leke, NA% of GNP (1993 est.), note - conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate could produce misleading results

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Albania - Transportation 1994
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 12
Usable: 10
With permanentsurface runways: 3
With runways over 3659 m: 0
With runways 2440-3659 m: 6
With runways 1220-2439 m: 4

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: crude oil 145 km; petroleum products 55 km; natural gas 64 km (1991)



Waterways: 43 km plus Albanian sections of Lake Scutari, Lake Ohrid, and Lake Prespa (1990)

Merchant marine: 11 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 52,967 GRT/76,887 DWT

Ports and terminals

Albania - Transnational issues 1994
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Disputes international: Albanian majority in Kosovo seeks independence from Serbia and Montenegro, and the Albanian Government supports the Kosovo position politically

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan route; limited opium production

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