Statistical information Bahrain 1994Bahrain

Map of Bahrain | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Bahrain in the World
Bahrain in the World

Bahrain - Introduction 1994
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Background: Bahrain's small size and central location among Persian Gulf countries require it to play a delicate balancing act in foreign affairs among its larger neighbors. Possessing minimal oil reserves Bahrain has turned to petroleum processing and refining and has transformed itself into an international banking center. The new amir is pushing economic and political reforms and has worked to improve relations with the Shi'a community.

Bahrain - Geography 1994
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Location: Middle East, in the central Persian Gulf, between Saudi Arabia and Qatar

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceAfrica, Middle East, Standard Time Zones of the World

Total area total: 620 km²
Land: 620 km²

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 161 km

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Continental shelf: not specified
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers

Terrain: mostly low desert plain rising gently to low central escarpment


Natural resources: oil, associated and nonassociated natural gas, fish
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 2%
Permanent crops: 2%
Meadows and pastures: 6%
Forest and woodland: 0%
Other: 90%

Irrigated land: 10 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: periods of drought, dust storms

Note: close to primary Middle Eastern petroleum sources; strategic location in Persian Gulf through which much of Western world's petroleum must transit to reach open ocean

Bahrain - People 1994
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Population: 585,683 (July 1994 est.)
Growth rate: 2.96% (1994 est.)

Nationality: noun:Bahraini(s)

Ethnic groups: Bahraini 63%, Asian 13%, other Arab 10%, Iranian 8%, other 6%

Languages: Arabic, English, Farsi, Urdu

Religions: Shi'a Muslim 70%, Sunni Muslim 30%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 2.96% (1994 est.)

Birth rate: 26.59 births/1000 population (1994 est.)

Death rate: 3.83 deaths/1000 population (1994 est.)

Net migration rate: 6.83 migrant(s)/1000 population (1994 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: desertification resulting from the degradation of limited arable land, periods of drought, and dust storms; coastal degradation (damage to coastlines, coral reefs, and sea vegetation) resulting from oil spills and other discharges from large tankers, oil refineries, and distribution stations; no surface water resources; groundwater and sea water are the only sources for all water needs

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 19 deaths/1000 live births (1994 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 73.51 years
Male: 71.1 years
Female: 76.05 years (1994 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.96 children born/woman (1994 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Total population: 77%
Male: 82%
Female: 69%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Bahrain - Government 1994
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Country name
Conventional long form: State of Bahrain
Conventional short form:
local long form: Dawlat al Bahrayn
local short form; Al Bahrayn

Government type: traditional monarchy

Capital: Manama

Administrative divisions: 12 districts (manatiq, singular - mintaqah; Al Hadd, Al Manamah, Al Mintaqah al Gharbiyah, Al Mintaqah al Wusta, Al Mintaqah ash Shamaliyah, Al Muharraq, Ar Rifa'wa al Mintaqah al Janubiyah, Jidd Hafs, Madinat Hamad, Madinat 'Isa, Mintaqat Juzur Hawar, Sitrah

Dependent areas

Independence: 15 August 1971 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 16 December (1961)

Constitution: 26 May 1973, effective 6 December 1973

Legal system: based on Islamic law and English common law

International law organization participation


Suffrage: none

Executive branch
Chief of state: Amir ISA bin Salman Al Khalifa (since 2 November 1961); Heir Apparent HAMAD bin Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa (son of the Amir, born 28 January 1950)
Head of government: Prime Minister KHALIFA bin Salman Al Khalifa (since 19 January 1970)

Legislative branch: Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense, Police Force

Judicial branch: High Civil Appeals Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GATT, GCC, IBRD, ICAO, IDB, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation
From the us chief of mission: (vacant); Charge d'Affaires David S. ROBINS
From the us chancery: 3,502 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20,008
From the us telephone: [973] 273-300
From the us consulates general: New York
From the us embassy: Road No. 3,119 (next to Alahli Sports Club), Zinj District, Manama
From the us mailing address: FPO AE 9,834-5,100; P.O. Box 26,431, Manama
From the us fax: (973) 272-594

Flag descriptionflag of Bahrain: red with a white serrated band (eight white points) on the hoist side

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Bahrain - Economy 1994
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Economy overview: Petroleum production and processing account for about 80% of export receipts, 60% of government revenues, and 30% of GDP. Economic conditions have fluctuated with the changing fortunes of oil since 1985, for example, during and following the Gulf crisis of 1990-91. Bahrain with its highly developed communication and transport facilities is home to numerous multinational firms with business in the Gulf. A large share of exports consists of petroleum products made from imported crude. Prospects for 1994 are good, with private enterprise the main driving force, e.g., in banking and construction.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 4% (1993 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: including fishing, accounts for less than 2% of GDP; not self-sufficient in food production; heavily subsidized sector produces fruit, vegetables, poultry, dairy products, shrimp, fish

Industries: petroleum processing and refining, aluminum smelting, offshore banking, ship repairing

Industrial production growth rate: 3.8% (1988; accounts for 44% of GDP

Labor force: 140,000
By occupation industry and commerce: 85%
By occupation agriculture: 5%
By occupation services: 5%
By occupation government: 3% (1982)
By occupation note: 42% of labor force is Bahraini
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 8%-10% (1989)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues:$1.2 billion

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $3.5 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
Commodities: petroleum and petroleum products 80%, aluminum 7%
Partners: Japan 13%, UAE 12%, India 10%, Pakistan 8%, Singapore 6% (1991)

Imports: $3.7 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
Commodities: nonoil 59%, crude oil 41%
Partners: Saudi Arabia 42%, US 14%, UK 7%, Japan 5%, Germany 4% (1991)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $2.6 billion (1993)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Bahraini dinars (BD) per US$1 - 0.3760 (fixed rate)

Bahrain - Energy 1994
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 4.7 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 8,500 kWh (1992)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Bahrain - Communication 1994
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Bahrain - Military 1994
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: exchange rate conversion - $245 million, 6% of GDP (1993)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Bahrain - Transportation 1994
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 3
Usable: 3
With permanentsurface runways: 2
With runways over 3659 m: 2
With runways 2440-3659 m: 0
With runways 1220-2439 m: 1

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: crude oil 56 km; petroleum products 16 km; natural gas 32 km




Merchant marine: 6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 101,844 GRT/143,997 DWT, bulk 1, cargo 4, container 1

Ports and terminals

Bahrain - Transnational issues 1994
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Disputes international: territorial dispute with Qatar over the Hawar Islands; maritime boundary with Qatar

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs

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