Statistical information Bosnia and Herzegovina 1994Bosnia%20and%20Herzegovina

Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Bosnia and Herzegovina in the World
Bosnia and Herzegovina in the World


Bosnia and Herzegovina - Introduction 1994
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Background: Bosnia and Herzegovina is suffering from interethnic civil strife which began in March 1992 after the Government of Bosnia and Herzegovina held a referendum on independence. Bosnia's Serbs - supported by neighboring Serbia - responded with armed resistance aimed at partitioning the republic along ethnic lines and joining Serb-held areas to a "greater Serbia." Since the onset of the conflict, which has driven approximately half of the pre-war population of 4.4 million from their homes, both the Bosnian Serbs and the Bosnian Croats have asserted control of more than three-quarters of the territory formerly under the control of the Government of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The UN and the EU are continuing to try to mediate a plan for peace. In March 1994 Bosnian Muslims and Bosnian Croats signed an agreement in Washington, DC, creating a Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which is to include territories in which Muslims or Croats predominated, according to the 1991 census. Bosnian Serbs refused to become a part of this Federation.

Bosnia and Herzegovina - Geography 1994
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Location: Balkan State, Southeastern Europe, on the Balkan Peninsula, between Croatia and Serbia and Montenegro

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceAfrica, Arctic Region, Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World

Total area total: 51,233 km²
Land: 51,233 km²

Land boundaries: total 1,459 km, Croatia 932 km, Serbia and Montenegro 527 km (312 km with Serbia; 215 km with Montenegro)

Coastline: 20 km

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: 200-m depth
Exclusive economic zone: 12 nm
Exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short, cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters along coast

Terrain: mountains and valleys


Natural resources: coal, iron, bauxite, manganese, timber, wood products, copper, chromium, lead, zinc
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 20%
Permanent crops: 2%
Meadows and pastures: 25%
Forest and woodland: 36%
Other: 17%

Irrigated land: NA km²

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: subject to frequent and destructive earthquakes

Note: The US recognizes the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is a new government being formed by the Muslims and Croats. On 31 May 1994 a Croat president, Kresimir ZUBAK, and a Muslim vice president, Ejup GANIC, were elected. Haris SILAJDZIC, who is prime minister of the Republic, is also the prime minister of the Federation.

Bosnia and Herzegovina - People 1994
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Population: 4,651,485 (July 1994 est.)
Note: all data dealing with population is subject to considerable error because of the dislocations caused by military action and ethnic cleansing
Growth rate: 0.69% (1994 est.)

Nationality: noun:Bosnian(s), Herzegovinian(s)

Ethnic groups: Muslim 44%, Serb 31%, Croat 17%, other 8%

Languages: Serbo-Croatian 99%

Religions: Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Catholic 15%, Protestant 4%, other 10%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 0.69% (1994 est.)

Birth rate: 13.33 births/1000 population (1994 est.)

Death rate: 6.39 deaths/1000 population (1994 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1994 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: air pollution from metallurgical plants; water scarce; sites for disposing of urban waste are limited; widespread casualties and destruction of infrastructure because of civil strife

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 12.7 deaths/1000 live births (1994 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 75.13 years
Male: 72.43 years
Female: 78.02 years (1994 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.61 children born/woman (1994 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Total population: NA%
Male: NA%
Female: NA%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Bosnia and Herzegovina - Government 1994
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Conventional short form:
local long form: Republika Bosna i Hercegovina
local short form; Bosna i Hercegovina

Government type: emerging democracy

Capital: Sarajevo

Administrative divisions: 109 districts (opstinas, singular - opstina) Banovici, Banja Luka, Bihac, Bijeljina, Bileca, Bosanska Dubica, Bosanska Gradiska, Bosanska Krupa, Bosanski Brod, Bosanski Novi, Bosanski Petrovac, Bosanski Samac, Bosansko Grahovo, Bratunac, Brcko, Breza, Bugojno, Busovaca, Cazin, Cajnice, Capljina, Celinac, Citluk, Derventa, Doboj, Donji Vakuf, Foca, Fojnica, Gacko, Glamoc, Gorazde, Gornji Vakuf, Gracanica, Gradacac, Grude, Han Pijesak, Jablanica, Jajce, Kakanj, Kalesija, Kalinovik, Kiseljak, Kladanj, Kljuc, Konjic, Kotor Varos, Kresevo, Kupres, Laktasi, Listica, Livno, Lopare, Lukavac, Ljubinje, Ljubuski, Maglaj, Modrica, Mostar, Mrkonjic-Grad, Neum, Nevesinje, Odzak, Olovo, Orasje, Posusje, Prijedor, Prnjavor, Prozor, (Pucarevo) Novi Travnik, Rogatica, Rudo, Sanski Most, Sarajevo-Centar, Sarajevo-Hadzici, Sarajevo-Ilidza, Sarajevo-Ilijas, Sarajevo-Novi Grad, Sarajevo-Novo, Sarajevo-Pale, Sarajevo-Stari Grad, Sarajevo-Trnovo, Sarajevo-Vogosca, Skender Vakuf, Sokolac, Srbac, Srebrenica, Srebrenik, Stolac, Sekovici, Sipovo, Teslic, Tesanj, Drvar, Duvno, Travnik, Trebinje, Tuzla, Ugljevik, Vares, Velika Kladusa, Visoko, Visegrad, Vitez, Vlasenica, Zavidovici, Zenica, Zvornik, Zepce, Zivinice
Note: currently under negotiation with the assistance of international mediators

Dependent areas

Independence: NA April 1992 (from Yugoslavia)

National holiday: NA

Constitution: promulgated in 1974 (under the Communists), amended 1989, 1990, and 1991; the Assembly planned to draft a new constitution in 1991, before conditions deteriorated; constitution of Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (including Muslim and Croatian controlled parts of Republic) ratified April 1994

Legal system: based on civil law system

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 16 years of age, if employed; 18 years of age, universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Alija IZETBEGOVIC (since 20 December 1990), other members of the collective presidency:Ejup GANIC (since NA November 1990), Nijaz DURAKOVIC (since NA October 1993), Stjepan KLJUJIC (since NA October 1993), Ivo KOMSIC (since NA October 1993), Mirko PEJANOVIC (since NA June 1992), Tatjana LJUJIC-MIJATOVIC (since NA December 1992)
Head of government: Prime Minister Haris SILAJDZIC (since NA October 1993); Deputy Prime Minister Edib BUKVIC (since NA October 1993)

Legislative branch: Army
Chamber of Municipalities Vijece Opeina: elections last held November-December 1990 (next to be held NA); percent of vote by party NA; seats - (110 total) SDA 43, SDS BiH 38, HDZ BiH 23, Party of Democratic Changes 4, DSS 1, SPO 1
Chamber of Citizens Vijece Gradanstvo: elections last held November-December 1990 (next to be held NA); percent of vote by party NA; seats - (130 total) SDA 43, SDS BiH 34, HDZ BiH 21, Party of Democratic Changes 15, SRSJ BiH 12, MBO 2, DSS 1, DSZ 1, LS 1
Note: legislative elections for Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina are slated for late 1994

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: CEI, CSCE, ECE, ICAO, ILO, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, NAM (guest), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO

Diplomatic representation
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Victor JACKOVICH
From the us chancery: Suite 760, 1707 L Street NW, Washington, DC 10,036
From the us telephone: NA
From the us fax: (202) 833-2,061
From the us consulates general: New York
From the us embassy: address NA
From the us mailing address: NA
From the us FAX: NA

Flag descriptionflag of Bosnia%20and%20Herzegovina: white with a large blue shield; the shield contains white Roman crosses with a white diagonal band running from the upper hoist corner to the lower fly side

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Bosnia and Herzegovina - Economy 1994
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Economy overview: Bosnia and Herzegovina ranked next to The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia as the poorest republic in the old Yugoslav federation. Although agriculture has been almost all in private hands, farms have been small and inefficient, and the republic traditionally has been a net importer of food. Industry has been greatly overstaffed, one reflection of the rigidities of Communist central planning and management. Tito had pushed the development of military industries in the republic with the result that Bosnia hosted a large share of Yugoslavia's defense plants. As of April 1994, Bosnia and Herzegovina was being torn apart by the continued bitter interethnic warfare that has caused production to plummet, unemployment and inflation to soar, and human misery to multiply. No reliable economic statistics for 1992-93 are available, although output clearly has fallen substantially below the levels of earlier years.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: NA%

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounted for 9.0% of GDP in 1989; regularly produces less than 50% of food needs; the foothills of northern Bosnia support orchards, vineyards, livestock, and some wheat and corn; long winters and heavy precipitation leach soil fertility reducing agricultural output in the mountains; farms are mostly privately held, small, and not very productive (1991)

Industries: steel production, mining (coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, and bauxite), manufacturing (vehicle assembly, textiles, tobacco products, wooden furniture, 40% of former Yugoslavia's armaments including tank and aircraft assembly, domestic appliances), oil refining (1991)

Industrial production growth rate: NA%; production is sharply down because of interethnic and interrepublic warfare (1991-93)

Labor force: 1,026,254
By occupation agriculture: 2%
By occupation industry mining: 45% (1991 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA%

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues:$NA

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $NA
Commodities: NA
Partners: NA

Imports: $NA
Commodities: NA
Partners: NA

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $NA

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: NA

Bosnia and Herzegovina - Energy 1994
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Electricity access

Electricity production: NA kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: NA kWh

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Bosnia and Herzegovina - Communication 1994
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Bosnia and Herzegovina - Military 1994
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $NA, NA% of GDP

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Bosnia and Herzegovina - Transportation 1994
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 28
Usable: 24
With permanentsurface runways: 5
With runways over 3659: 0
With runways 2440-3659 m: 3
With runways 1220-2439 m: 6

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: crude oil 174 km; natural gas 90 km (1992; note - pipelines now disrupted



Waterways: NA km

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Bosnia and Herzegovina - Transnational issues 1994
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Disputes international: as of May 1994, members of the Bosnian Serb armed factions, desirous of establishing a separate state linked with neighboring Serbia, occupied 70% of Bosnia after having killed or driven out non-Serb inhabitants; the Bosnian Croats, occupied and declared an independent state in an additional 10% of Bosnia in 1993, but in March 1994, this faction and the Bosnian Government settled their dispute and entered into a bicommunal Federation; a Bosnian Government army commander who opposes the leadership of Bosnian President IZETBEGOVIC is leading an insurrection in the government-held enclave of Bihac

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: NA

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