Statistical information Brazil 1994Brazil

Map of Brazil | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Brazil in the World
Brazil in the World

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Brazil - Introduction 1994
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Background: Following three centuries under the rule of Portugal Brazil became an independent nation in 1822. By far the largest and most populous country in South America Brazil has overcome more than half a century of military intervention in the governance of the country to pursue industrial and agricultural growth and development of the interior. Exploiting vast natural resources and a large labor pool Brazil became Latin America's leading economic power by the 1970s. Highly unequal income distribution remains a pressing problem.


Brazil - Geography 1994
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Location: Eastern South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceSouth America, Standard Time Zones of the World

Area
Total area total: 8,511,965 km²
Land: 8,456,510 km²

Land boundaries: total 14,691 km, Argentina 1,224 km, Bolivia 3,400 km, Colombia 1,643 km, French Guiana 673 km, Guyana 1,119 km, Paraguay 1,290 km, Peru 1,560 km, Suriname 597 km, Uruguay 985 km, Venezuela 2,200 km

Coastline: 7,491 km

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Continental shelf: 200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: mostly tropical, but temperate in south

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains, hills, mountains, and narrow coastal belt

Elevation

Natural resources: iron ore, manganese, bauxite, nickel, uranium, phosphates, tin, hydropower, gold, platinum, petroleum, timber
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 7%
Permanent crops: 1%
Meadows and pastures: 19%
Forest and woodland: 67%
Other: 6%

Irrigated land: 27,000 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: recurring droughts in northeast; floods and occasional frost in south

Geography
Note: largest country in South America; shares common boundaries with every South American country except Chile and Ecuador


Brazil - People 1994
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Population: 158,739,257 (July 1994 est.)
Growth rate: 1.28% (1994 est.)

Nationality: noun:Brazilian(s)

Ethnic groups: Portuguese, Italian, German, Japanese, Amerindian, black 6%, white 55%, mixed 38%, other 1%

Languages: Portuguese (official), Spanish, English, French

Religions: Roman Catholic (nominal) 70%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.28% (1994 est.)

Birth rate: 21.48 births/1000 population (1994 est.)

Death rate: 8.63 deaths/1000 population (1994 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1994 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: deforestation in Amazon Basin; air and water pollution in Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and several other large cities; land degradation and water pollution caused by improper mining activities

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 59.5 deaths/1000 live births (1994 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 62.25 years
Male: 57.41 years
Female: 67.32 years (1994 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.44 children born/woman (1994 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Total population: 81%
Male: 82%
Female: 80%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Brazil - Government 1994
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Country name
Conventional long form: Federative Republic of Brazil
Conventional short form:
local long form: Republica Federativa do Brasil
local short form; Brasil


Government type: federal republic

Capital: Brasilia

Administrative divisions: 26 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 federal district* (distrito federal; Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal*, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins

Dependent areas

Independence: 7 September 1822 (from Portugal)

National holiday: Independence Day, 7 September (1822)

Constitution: 5 October 1988

Legal system: based on Roman codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: voluntary between 16 and 18 years of age and over 70; compulsory over 18 and under 70 years of age

Executive branch: chief of state and head of government:President Itamar FRANCO (since 29 December 1992; election last held 15 November 1989, with runoff on 17 December 1989 (next to be held October 1994; results - Fernando COLLOR de Mello 53%, Luis Inacio LULA da Silva 47%; note - first free, direct presidential election since 1960; Fernando COLLOR de Mello was impeached in December 1992 and succeeded by former Vice President Itamar FRANCO

Legislative branch: Brazilian Army, Navy of Brazil (including Marines), Brazilian Air Force, Military Police (paramilitary)
Federal Senate Senado Federal: election last held 3 October 1990 (next to be held October 1994); results - percent of vote by party PMBD 33%, PFL 16%, PSDB 12%, PDS 4%, PDT 6%, PT 1%, other 28%; seats - (81 total as of 3 February 1991) PMDB 27, PFL 15, PSDB 10, PTB 8, PDT 5, other 16
Chamber of Deputies Camara dos Deputados: election last held 3 October 1990 (next to be held October 1994); results - PMDB 21%, PFL 17%, PDT 9%, PDS 8%, PRN 7.9%, PTB 7%, PT 7%, other 23.1%; seats - (503 total as of 3 February 1991) PMDB 108, PFL 87, PDT 46, PDS 43, PRN 40, PTB 35, PT 35, other 109

Judicial branch: Supreme Federal Tribunal

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer), CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS, MERCOSUR, NAM (observer), OAS, ONUSAL, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNOMOZ, UNOMUR, UNPROFOR, UPU, WCL, WHO, WFTU, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Melvyn LEVITSKY
From the us chancery: 3,006 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,008
From the us telephone: [55] (61) 321-7,272
From the us fax: (202) 745-2,827
From the us consulates general: Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo
From the us consulates: Porto Alegre, Recife
From the us embassy: Avenida das Nacoes, Lote 3, Brasilia, Distrito Federal
From the us mailing address: APO AA 34,030
From the us FAX: [55] (61) 225-9,136

Flag descriptionflag of Brazil: green with a large yellow diamond in the center bearing a blue celestial globe with 27 white five-pointed stars (one for each state and district) arranged in the same pattern as the night sky over Brazil; the globe has a white equatorial band with the motto ORDEM E PROGRESSO (Order and Progress)

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Brazil - Economy 1994
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Economy overview: The economy, with large agrarian, mining, and manufacturing sectors, entered the 1990s with declining real growth, runaway inflation, an unserviceable foreign debt of $122 billion, and a lack of policy direction. In addition, the economy remained highly regulated, inward-looking, and protected by substantial trade and investment barriers. Ownership of major industrial and mining facilities is divided among private interests - including several multinationals - and the government. Most large agricultural holdings are private, with the government channeling financing to this sector. Conflicts between large landholders and landless peasants have produced intermittent violence. The COLLOR government, which assumed office in March 1990, launched an ambitious reform program that sought to modernize and reinvigorate the economy by stabilizing prices, deregulating the economy, and opening it to increased foreign competition. The government also obtained an IMF standby loan in January 1992 and reached agreements with commercial bankers on the repayment of interest arrears and on the reduction of debt and debt service payments. Galloping inflation (the rate doubled in 1992 and by March 1994 had risen to 42% per month) continues to undermine economic stability. Itamar FRANCO, who assumed the presidency following President COLLOR'S resignation in December 1992, was out of step with COLLOR'S reform agenda; initiatives to redress fiscal problems, privatize state enterprises, and liberalize trade and investment policies have lost momentum. Brazil's natural resources remain a major, long-term economic strength

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 5% (1993)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 11% of GDP; world's largest producer and exporter of coffee and orange juice concentrate and second-largest exporter of soybeans; other products - rice, corn, sugarcane, cocoa, beef; self-sufficient in food, except for wheat

Industries: textiles and other consumer goods, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber, iron ore, steel, motor vehicles and auto parts, metalworking, capital goods, tin

Industrial production growth rate: 9.5% (1993; accounts for 39% of GDP

Labor force: 57 million (1989 est.)
By occupation services: 42%
By occupation agriculture: 31%
By occupation industry: 27%
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 4.9% (1993)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues:$113 billion

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $38.8 billion (f.o.b. 1993)
Commodities: iron ore, soybean bran, orange juice, footwear, coffee, motor vehicle parts
Partners: EC 27.6%, Latin America 21.8%, US 17.4%, Japan 6.3% (1993)

Imports: $25.7 billion (f.o.b. 1993)
Commodities: crude oil, capital goods, chemical products, foodstuffs, coal
Partners: US 23.3%, EC 22.5%, Middle East 13.0%, Latin America 11.8%, Japan 6.5% (1993)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $119 billion (1993)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: CR$ per US$1 - 390.845 (January 1994), 88.449 (1993), 4.513 (1992), 0.407 (1991), 0.068 (1990), 0.003 (1989)
Note: on 1 August 1993 the cruzeiro real, equal to 1,000 cruzeiros, was introduced; another new currency, the real, will be introduced on 1 July 1994


Brazil - Energy 1994
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 242.184 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 1,531 kWh (1992)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Brazil - Communication 1994
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Brazil - Military 1994
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: exchange rate conversion - $1.1 billion, 3% of GDP (1990)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Brazil - Transportation 1994
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 3,581
Usable: 3,024
With permanentsurface runways: 436
With runways over 3659 m: 2
With runways 2440-3659 m: 22
With runways 1220-2439 m: 598

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: crude oil 2,000 km; petroleum products 3,804 km; natural gas 1,095 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 50,000 km navigable

Merchant marine: 220 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,139,176 GRT/8,695,682 DWT, bulk 53, cargo 40, chemical tanker 14, combination ore/oil 12, container 11, liquified gas 11, oil tanker 62, passenger-cargo 5, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 11
Note: in addition, 1 naval tanker is sometimes used commercially

Ports and terminals


Brazil - Transnational issues 1994
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Disputes international: short section of the boundary with Paraguay, just west of Salto das Sete Quedas (Guaira Falls) on the Rio Parana, is in dispute; two short sections of boundary with Uruguay are in dispute - Arroio Invernada (Arroyo de la Invernada) area of the Rio Quarai (Rio Cuareim) and the islands at the confluence of the Rio Quarai and the Uruguay River

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis and coca, mostly for domestic consumption; government has a modest eradication program to control cannabis and coca cultivation; important transshipment country for Bolivian and Colombian cocaine headed for the US and Europe


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