Statistical information Chad 1994Chad

Map of Chad | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Chad in the World
Chad in the World

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Chad - Introduction 1994
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Background: After enduring decades of civil warfare among ethnic groups as well as invasions by Libya, Chad got started toward a more stable state with the seizure of the government in early December 1990 by former northern guerrilla leader Idress DEBY. His transitional government eventually suppressed armed rebellion in all quarters of the country, settled the territorial dispute with Libya on terms favorable to Chad.

Chad - Geography 1994
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Geographic coordinates

Map referenceAfrica, Standard Time Zones of the World

Total area total: 1.284 million km²
Land: 1,259,200 km²

Land boundaries: total 5,968 km, Cameroon 1,094 km, Central African Republic 1,197 km, Libya 1,055 km, Niger 1,175 km, Nigeria 87 km, Sudan 1,360 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

Climate: tropical in south, desert in north

Terrain: broad, arid plains in center, desert in north, mountains in northwest, lowlands in south


Natural resources: petroleum (unexploited but exploration under way), uranium, natron, kaolin, fish (Lake Chad)
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 2%
Permanent crops: 0%
Meadows and pastures: 36%
Forest and woodland: 11%
Other: 51%

Irrigated land: 100 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in north; periodic droughts; subject to locust plagues

Note: landlocked; Lake Chad is the most significant water body in the Sahel

Chad - People 1994
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Population: 5,466,771 (July 1994 est.)
Growth rate: 2.15% (1994 est.)

Nationality: noun:Chadian(s)

Ethnic groups: north and center:Muslims (Arabs, Toubou, Hadjerai, Fulbe, Kotoko, Kanembou, Baguirmi, Boulala, Zaghawa, and Maba)

Languages: French (official), Arabic (official), Sara (in south), Sango (in south), more than 100 different languages and dialects are spoken

Religions: Muslim 50%, Christian 25%, indigenous beliefs, animism 25%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 2.15% (1994 est.)

Birth rate: 42.12 births/1000 population (1994 est.)

Death rate: 20.59 deaths/1000 population (1994 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1994 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: desertification

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 131.8 deaths/1000 live births (1994 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 40.79 years
Male: 39.7 years
Female: 41.94 years (1994 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.33 children born/woman (1994 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write French or Arabic (1990 est.)
Total population: 30%
Male: 42%
Female: 18%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Chad - Government 1994
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Chad
Conventional short form:
local long form: Republique du Tchad
local short form; Tchad

Government type: republic

Capital: N'Djamena

Administrative divisions: 14 prefectures (prefectures, singular - prefecture; Batha, Biltine, Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti, Chari-Baguirmi, Guera, Kanem, Lac, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mayo-Kebbi, Moyen-Chari, Ouaddai, Salamat, Tandjile

Dependent areas

Independence: 11 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day 11 August (1960)

Constitution: 22 December 1989, suspended 3 December 1990; Provisional National Charter 1 March 1991; constitutional commission drafting new constitution to submit to transitional parliament for ratification in April 1994

Legal system: based on French civil law system and Chadian customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: universal at age NA

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Col. Idriss DEBY, since 4 December 1990 (after seizing power on 3 December 1990 - transitional government's mandate expires April 1995)
Head of government: Prime Minister Kassire Delwa KOUMAKOYE (since 17 November 1993)

Legislative branch: Army (includes Ground Forces, Air Force, and Gendarmerie), Republican Guard
Consultatif: elections last held 8 July 1990; disbanded 3 December 1990 and replaced by the Provisional Council of the Republic having 30 members appointed by President DEBY on 8 March 1991; this, in turn, was replaced by a 57-member Higher Transitional Council (Conseil Superieur de Transition) elected by a specially convened Sovereign National Conference on 6 April 1993

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders


Diplomatic representation
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Lawrence POPE
From the us chancery: 2002 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20,009
From the us telephone: [235] (51) 62-18, 40-09, or 62-11
From the us fax: (202) 265-1937
From the us embassy: Avenue Felix Eboue, N'Djamena
From the us mailing address: B. P. 413, N'Djamena
From the us FAX: [235] (51) 33-72

Flag descriptionflag of Chad: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; similar to the flag of Romania; also similar to the flag of Andorra, which has a national coat of arms featuring a quartered shield centered in the yellow band; design was based on the flag of France

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Chad - Economy 1994
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Economy overview: Climate, geographic remoteness, poor resource endowment, and lack of infrastructure make Chad one of the most underdeveloped countries in the world. Its economy is hobbled by political turmoil, conflict with Libya, drought, and food shortages. Consequently the economy has shown little progress in recent years in overcoming a severe setback brought on by civil war in the late 1980s. Over 80% of the work force is involved in subsistence farming and fishing. Cotton is the major cash crop, accounting for at least half of exports. Chad is highly dependent on foreign aid, especially food credits, given chronic shortages in several regions. The government hopes that discovery of several oil deposits near Lake Chad will lead to economic revival and a windfall in government revenues by 2000.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 8.4% (1991 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for about 45% of GDP; largely subsistence farming; cotton most important cash crop; food crops include sorghum, millet, peanuts, rice, potatoes, manioc; livestock - cattle, sheep, goats, camels; self-sufficient in food in years of adequate rainfall

Industries: cotton textile mills, slaughterhouses, brewery, natron (sodium carbonate), soap, cigarettes

Industrial production growth rate: 12.9% (1989 est.), accounts for nearly 15% of GDP

Labor force: NA
By occupation agriculture: 85% (engaged in unpaid subsistence farming, herding and fishing)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA%

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues:$115 million

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $193.9 million (f.o.b., 1991)
Commodities: cotton 48%, cattle 35%, textiles 5%, fish
Partners: France, Nigeria, Cameroon

Imports: $294.1 million (f.o.b., 1991)
Commodities: machinery and transportation equipment 39%, industrial goods 20%, petroleum products 13%, foodstuffs 9%; note - excludes military equipment
Partners: US, France, Nigeria, Cameroon

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $492 million (December 1990 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine Francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 592.05 (January 1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989)
Note: beginning 12 January 1994 the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948

Chad - Energy 1994
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 70 million kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 15 kWh (1991)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Chad - Communication 1994
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Chad - Military 1994
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: exchange rate conversion - $58 million, 5.6% of GDP (1989)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Chad - Transportation 1994
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 68
Usable: 58
With permanentsurface runways: 5
With runways over 3659 m: 1
With runways 2440-3659 m: 3
With runways 1220-2439 m: 27

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways





Waterways: 2,000 km navigable

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Chad - Transnational issues 1994
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Disputes international: the International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruled in February 1994 that the 100,000 km² Aozou Strip between Chad and Libya belongs to Chad, and that Libya must withdraw from it by 31 May 1994; Libya had withdrawn its forces in response to the ICJ ruling, but as of June 1994 still maintained an airfield in the disputed area; demarcation of international boundaries in Lake Chad, the lack of which has led to border incidents in the past, is completed and awaiting ratification by Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs

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