Statistical information Colombia 1994Colombia

Map of Colombia | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Colombia in the World
Colombia in the World

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Colombia - Introduction 1994
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Background: Colombia gained its independence from Spain in 1819. Earlier than most countries in the area, it established traditions of civilian government with regular, free elections. In recent years, however, assassinations, widespread guerrilla activities, and drug trafficking have severely disrupted normal public and private activities.

Colombia - Geography 1994
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Location: Northern South America, between Panama and Venezuela

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceCentral America and the Caribbean, South America, Standard Time Zones of the World

Total area total: 1,138,910 km²
Land: 1,038,700 km²

Land boundaries: total 7,408 km, Brazil 1,643 km, Ecuador 590 km, Panama 225 km, Peru 2,900 km, Venezuela 2,050 km

Coastline: 3,208 km (Caribbean Sea 1,760 km, North Pacific Ocean 1,448 km)

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: not specified
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in highlands

Terrain: flat coastal lowlands, central highlands, high Andes Mountains, eastern lowland plains


Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel, gold, copper, emeralds
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 4%
Permanent crops: 2%
Meadows and pastures: 29%
Forest and woodland: 49%
Other: 16%

Irrigated land: 5,150 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: highlands subject to volcanic eruptions; periodic droughts

Note: only South American country with coastlines on both North Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea

Colombia - People 1994
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Population: 35,577,556 (July 1994 est.)
Growth rate: 1.77% (1994 est.)

Nationality: noun:Colombian(s)

Ethnic groups: mestizo 58%, white 20%, mulatto 14%, black 4%, mixed black-Indian 3%, Indian 1%

Languages: Spanish

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.77% (1994 est.)

Birth rate: 22.64 births/1000 population (1994 est.)

Death rate: 4.75 deaths/1000 population (1994 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.21 migrant(s)/1000 population (1994 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: deforestation; soil damage from overuse of pesticides

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 28.3 deaths/1000 live births (1994 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 72.1 years
Male: 69.33 years
Female: 74.95 years (1994 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.47 children born/woman (1994 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Total population: 87%
Male: 88%
Female: 86%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Colombia - Government 1994
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Colombia
Conventional short form:
local long form: Republica de Colombia
local short form

Government type: republic; executive branch dominates government structure

Capital: Bogota

Administrative divisions: 32 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and 1 capital district* (distrito capital; Amazonas, Antioquia, Arauca, Atlantico, Bogota*, Bolivar, Boyaca, Caldas, Caqueta, Casanare, Cauca, Cesar, Choco, Cordoba, Cundinamarca, Guainia, Guaviare, Huila, La Guajira, Magdalena, Meta, Narino, Norte de Santander, Putumayo, Quindio, Risaralda, San Andres y Providencia, Santander, Sucre, Tolima, Valle del Cauca, Vaupes, Vichada

Dependent areas

Independence: 20 July 1810 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 20 July (1810)

Constitution: 5 July 1991

Legal system: based on Spanish law; a new criminal code modeled after US procedures was enacted in 1992-93; judicial review of executive and legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch: chief of state and head of government:President Cesar GAVIRIA Trujillo (since 7 August 1990); President-designate Juan Manuel SANTOS (since NA 1993); election last held 27 May 1990 (next to be held May 1994); results - Cesar GAVIRIA Trujillo (Liberal Party) 47%, Alvaro GOMEZ Hurtado (National Salvation Movement) 24%, Antonio NAVARRO Wolff (AD/M-19) 13%, Rodrigo LLOREDA (Conservative Party) 12%
Note: a new government will be inaugurated on 7 August 1994; the presidential election of 29 May 1994 resulted in no candidate receiving more than 50% of the total vote and a run-off election to select a president from the two leading candidates was held on 19 June 1994; results - Ernesto SAMPER Pizano (Liberal Party) 50.4%, Andres PASTRANA Arango (Conservative Party) 48.6%, blank votes 1%; Humberto de la CALLE was elected vice president; electing a vice president is a new proceedure that replaces the traditional appointment of president-designates by newly elected presidents

Legislative branch: Army (Ejercito Nacional), Navy (Armada Nacional, including Marines), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Colombiana), National Police (Policia Nacional)
Senate Senado: elections last held 13 March 1994 (next to be held NA March 1998); preliminary results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (102 total) Liberal Party 59, conservatives (includes PC, MSN, and NDF) 31, other 12
House of Representatives Camara de Representantes: elections last held 13 March 1994 (next to be held NA March 1998); preliminary results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (161 total) Liberal Party 89, conservatives (includes PC, MSN, and NDF) 53, AD/M-19 2, other 17

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justical), Constitutional Court, Council of State

Political parties and leaders


Diplomatic representation
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Morris D. BUSBY
From the us chancery: 2,118 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20,008
From the us telephone: [57] (1) 320-1300
From the us fax: (202) 232-8,643
From the us consulates general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico), and Washington
From the us consulates: Barranquilla
From the us embassy: Calle 38, No. 8-61, Bogota
From the us mailing address: Apartado Aereo 3,831, Bogota or APO AA 34,038
From the us FAX: [57] (1) 288-5,687

Flag descriptionflag of Colombia: three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double-width), blue, and red; similar to the flag of Ecuador, which is longer and bears the Ecuadorian coat of arms superimposed in the center

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Colombia - Economy 1994
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Economy overview: Colombia's economic growth has recovered steadily since 1991 as President GAVIRIA'S sweeping economic reform measures have taken hold. Market reforms have included trade and investment liberalization, labor and tax overhauls and bureaucratic streamlining, among other things. Furthermore, conservative fiscal and monetary policies have helped to steadily reduce inflation to 23% and unemployment to about 7% in 1993. The rapid development of oil, coal, and other nontraditional industries has helped offset the decline in coffee prices. A major oil find in 1993 in eastern Colombia may provide an extra $3 billion annually to the economy by 1997. Increased foreign investment and even greater domestic activity have been hampered, however, by a troublesome rural insurgency, a decrepit energy and transportation infrastructure, and drug-related violence. Agriculture also has encountered problems in adjusting to fewer subsidies, greater competition, and the collapse of the international coffee agreement, which has kept world coffee prices at near-record lows in 1991-93. Business construction was a leading sector in 1993. The substantial trade deficit in 1993 was the result of a strong peso that inhibited exports and a liberalized government policy that spurred imports.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 5.1% (1993 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: growth rate 2.7% (1993 est.) accounts for 21% of GDP; crops make up two-thirds and livestock one-third of agricultural output; climate and soils permit a wide variety of crops, such as coffee, rice, tobacco, corn, sugarcane, cocoa beans, oilseeds, vegetables; forest products and shrimp farming are becoming more important

Industries: textiles, food processing, oil, clothing and footwear, beverages, chemicals, metal products, cement; mining - gold, coal, emeralds, iron, nickel, silver, salt

Industrial production growth rate: 2% (1993 est.), accounts for 21% of GDP

Labor force: 12 million (1990)
By occupation services: 46%
By occupation agriculture: 30%
By occupation industry: 24% (1990)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 7.9% (1993 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues:$11 billion

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $6.9 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
Commodities: petroleum, coffee, coal, bananas, fresh cut flowers
Partners: US 39%, EC 25.7%, Japan 2.9%, Venezuela 8.5% (1992)

Imports: $6.7 billion (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
Commodities: industrial equipment, transportation equipment, consumer goods, chemicals, paper products
Partners: US 36%, EC 18%, Brazil 4%, Venezuela 6.5%, Japan 8.7% (1992)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $17 billion (1992)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Colombian pesos (Col$) per US$1 - 921.20 (January 1994), 863.06 (1993), 759.28 (1992), 633.05 (1991), 502.26 (1990), 382.57 (1989)

Colombia - Energy 1994
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 36 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 1,050 kWh (1992)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Colombia - Communication 1994
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Colombia - Military 1994
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: exchange rate conversion - $1.2 billion (1992 est.)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Colombia - Transportation 1994
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 1,369
Usable: 1,156
With permanentsurface runways: 73
With runways over 3659 m: 1
With runways 24402659 m: 9
With runways 1220-2439 m: 205

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: crude oil 3,585 km; petroleum products 1,350 km; natural gas 830 km; natural gas liquids 125 km



Waterways: 14,300 km, navigable by river boats

Merchant marine: 27 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 211,777 GRT/335,763 DWT, bulk 7, cargo 11, container 6, oil tanker 3

Ports and terminals

Colombia - Transnational issues 1994
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Disputes international: maritime boundary dispute with Venezuela in the Gulf of Venezuela; territorial dispute with Nicaragua over Archipelago de San Andres y Providencia and Quita Sueno Bank

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of coca, opium, and cannabis; about 37,100 hectares of coca under cultivation; the world's largest processor of coca derivatives into cocaine in 1992; supplier of cocaine to the US and other international drug markets


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