Statistical information Ecuador 1994Ecuador

Map of Ecuador | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Ecuador in the World
Ecuador in the World


Ecuador - Introduction 1994
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Background: The 'Republic of the Equator' was one of three countries that emerged from the collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others being Colombia and Venezuela). Between 1904 and 1942 Ecuador lost territories in a series of conflicts with its neighbors.

Ecuador - Geography 1994
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Location: Western South America, bordering the Pacific Ocean at the Equator between Colombia and Peru

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceSouth America, Standard Time Zones of the World

Total area total: 283,560 km²
Land: 276,840 km²

Land boundaries: total 2,010 km, Colombia 590 km, Peru 1,420 km

Coastline: 2,237 km

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: claims continental shelf between mainland and Galapagos Islands
Territorial sea: 200 nm

Climate: tropical along coast becoming cooler inland

Terrain: coastal plain (costa), inter-Andean central highlands (sierra), and flat to rolling eastern jungle (oriente)


Natural resources: petroleum, fish, timber
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 6%
Permanent crops: 3%
Meadows and pastures: 17%
Forest and woodland: 51%
Other: 23%

Irrigated land: 5,500 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: subject to frequent earthquakes, landslides, volcanic activity; periodic droughts

Note: Cotopaxi in Andes is highest active volcano in world

Ecuador - People 1994
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Population: 10,677,067 (July 1994 est.)
Growth rate: 2.01% (1994 est.)

Nationality: noun:Ecuadorian(s)

Ethnic groups: mestizo (mixed Indian and Spanish) 55%, Indian 25%, Spanish 10%, black 10%

Languages: Spanish (official), Indian languages (especially Quechua)

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 2.01% (1994 est.)

Birth rate: 25.82 births/1000 population (1994 est.)

Death rate: 5.67 deaths/1000 population (1994 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1994 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; water pollution

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 39.3 deaths/1000 live births (1994 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 69.98 years
Male: 67.46 years
Female: 72.62 years (1994 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.08 children born/woman (1994 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
Total population: 88%
Male: 90%
Female: 86%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Ecuador - Government 1994
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Ecuador
Conventional short form:
local long form: Republica del Ecuador
local short form

Government type: republic

Capital: Quito

Administrative divisions: 21 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia; Azuay, Bolivar, Canar, Carchi, Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, El Oro, Esmeraldas, Galapagos, Guayas, Imbabura, Loja, Los Rios, Manabi, Morona-Santiago, Napo, Pastaza, Pichincha, Sucumbios, Tungurahua, Zamora-Chinchipe

Dependent areas

Independence: 24 May 1822 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 10 August (1809) (independence of Quito)

Constitution: 10 August 1979

Legal system: based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal, compulsory for literate persons ages 18-65, optional for other eligible voters

Executive branch: chief of state and head of government:President Sixto DURAN BALLEN Cordovez (since 10 August 1992; Vice President Alberto DAHIK Garzoni (since 10 August 1992; election runoff election held 5 July 1992 (next to be held NA 1996; results - Sixto DURAN BALLEN elected as president and Alberto DAHIK elected as vice president

Legislative branch: Army (Ejercito Ecuatoriano), Navy (Armada Ecuatoriana), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Ecuatoriana), National Police
National Congress Congreso Nacional: elections last held 17 May 1992 (next to be held 1 May 1994); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (77 total) PSC 20, PRE 15, PUR 12, ID 7, PC 6, DP 5, PSE 3, MPD 3, PLRE 2, CFP 2, FRA 1, APRE 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)

Political parties and leaders


Diplomatic representation
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Peter F. ROMERO
From the us chancery: 2,535 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20,009
From the us telephone: [593] (2) 562-890, 561-623 or 624
From the us consulates general: Guayaquil
From the us embassy: Avenida 12 de Octubre y Avenida Patria, Quito
From the us mailing address: P. O. Box 538, Unit 5,309, Quito, or APO AA 34,039-3,420
From the us FAX: [593] (2) 502-052

Flag descriptionflag of Ecuador: three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double width), blue, and red with the coat of arms superimposed at the center of the flag; similar to the flag of Colombia that is shorter and does not bear a coat of arms

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Ecuador - Economy 1994
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Economy overview: Ecuador has substantial oil resources and rich agricultural areas. Growth has been uneven because of natural disasters, fluctuations in global oil prices, and government policies designed to curb inflation. Banana exports, second only to oil, have suffered as a result of import quotas of the European Union and banana blight. The new President Sixto DURAN-BALLEN, has a much more favorable attitude toward foreign investment than did his predecessor. Ecuador has implemented trade agreements with Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Venezuela and has applied for GATT membership. At the end of 1991, Ecuador received a standby IMF loan of $105 million, which will permit the country to proceed with the rescheduling of Paris Club debt. In September 1992, the government launched a new, macroeconomic program that gives more play to market forces. In 1993, the DURAN-BALLEN administration adopted a rigorous austerity program that resulted in economic stabilization, with inflation cut in half and international reserves boosted to a record $1.3 billion. Growth in 1993 was perhaps only 2% due to falling export prices, notably oil, and slow progress on privatization.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 2% (1993 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 18% of GDP and 35% of labor force (including fishing and forestry; leading producer and exporter of bananas and balsawood; other exports - coffee, cocoa, fish, shrimp; crop production - rice, potatoes, manioc, plantains, sugarcane; livestock sector - cattle, sheep, hogs, beef, pork, dairy products; net importer of foodgrains, dairy products, and sugar

Industries: petroleum, food processing, textiles, metal works, paper products, wood products, chemicals, plastics, fishing, timber

Industrial production growth rate: 3.9% (1991; accounts for almost 30% of GDP, including petroleum

Labor force: 2.8 million
By occupation agriculture: 35%
By occupation manufacturing: 21%
By occupation commerce: 16%
By occupation servicesandotheractivities: 28% (1982)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 8% (1992)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues:$1.9 billion

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $3 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
Commodities: petroleum 42%, bananas, shrimp, cocoa, coffee
Partners: US 53.4%, Latin America, Caribbean, EC countries

Imports: $2.5 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
Commodities: transport equipment, vehicles, machinery, chemicals
Partners: US 32.7%, Latin America, Caribbean, EC countries, Japan

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $12.7 billion (1992)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: sucres (S/) per US$1 - 1,947.1 (October 1993), 1,534.0 (1992), 1,046.25 (1991), 767.8 (1990), 767.78 (1990), 526.35 (1989)

Ecuador - Energy 1994
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 7.676 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 700 kWh (1992)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Ecuador - Communication 1994
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Ecuador - Military 1994
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $NA, NA% of GDP

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Ecuador - Transportation 1994
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 211
Usable: 208
With permanentsurface runways: 56
With runway over 3659 m: 1
With runways 2440-3659 m: 7
With runways 1220-2439 m: 21

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: crude oil 800 km; petroleum products 1,358 km



Waterways: 1,500 km

Merchant marine: 40 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 263,752 GRT/378,675 DWT, bulk 1, cargo 3, container 2, liquefied gas 1, oil tanker 14, passenger 3, refrigerated cargo 15, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1

Ports and terminals

Ecuador - Transnational issues 1994
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Disputes international: three sections of the boundary with Peru are in dispute

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: significant transit country for derivatives of coca originating in Colombia, Bolivia, and Peru; minor illicit producer of coca; importer of precursor chemicals used in production of illicit narcotics; important money-laundering hub

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