Statistical information Estonia 1994Estonia

Map of Estonia | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Estonia in the World
Estonia in the World

World Nomads

Estonia - Introduction 1994
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Background: In and out of Swedish and Russian control over the centuries, this little Baltic state was re-incorporated into the USSR after German occupation in World War II. Independence came with the collapse of the USSR in 1991; the last Russian troops left in 1994. Estonia thus became free to promote economic and political ties with Western Europe. The position of ethnic Russians (29% of the population) is an issue of concern to Moscow.

Estonia - Geography 1994
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Location: Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Sweden and Russia

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceArctic Region, Asia, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World

Total area total: 45,100 km²
Land: 43,200 km²

Land boundaries: total 557 km, Latvia 267 km, Russia 290 km

Coastline: 1,393 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea:12 nm

Climate: maritime, wet, moderate winters, cool summers

Terrain: marshy, lowlands


Natural resources: shale oil, peat, phosphorite, amber
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 22%
Permanent crops: 0%
Meadows and pastures: 11%
Forest and woodland: 31%
Other: 36%

Irrigated land: 110 km² (1990)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: NA


Estonia - People 1994
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Population: 1,616,882 (July 1994 est.)
Growth rate: 0.52% (1994 est.)

Nationality: noun:Estonian(s)

Ethnic groups: Estonian 61.5%, Russian 30.3%, Ukrainian 3.17%, Byelorussian 1.8%, Finn 1.1%, other 2.13% (1989)

Languages: Estonian (official), Latvian, Lithuanian, Russian, other

Religions: Lutheran

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 0.52% (1994 est.)

Birth rate: 13.98 births/1000 population (1994 est.)

Death rate: 12.04 deaths/1000 population (1994 est.)

Net migration rate: 3.29 migrant(s)/1000 population (1994 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: air heavily polluted with sulfur dioxide from oil-shale burning power plants in northeast; contamination of soil and ground water with petroleum products, chemicals at military bases

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 19.1 deaths/1000 live births (1994 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 69.96 years
Male: 64.98 years
Female: 75.19 years (1994 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2 children born/woman (1994 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 9-49 can read and write (1989)
Total population: 100%
Male: 100%
Female: 100%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Estonia - Government 1994
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Estonia
Conventional short form:
local long form: Eesti Vabariik
local short form; Eesti

Former: Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic

Government type: republic

Capital: Tallinn

Administrative divisions: 15 counties (maakonnad, singular - maakond) and 6 municipalities*:Harju maakond (Tallinn), Hiiu maakond (Kardla), Ida-Viru maakond (Johvi), Jarva maakond (Paide), Jogeva maakond (Jogeva), Kohtla-Jarve*, Laane maakond (Haapsalu), Laane-Viru maakond (Rakvere), Narva*, Parnu*, Parnu maakond (Parnu), Polva maakond (Polva), Rapla maakond (Rapla), Saare maakond (Kuessaare), Sillamae*, Tallinn*, Tartu*, Tartu maakond (Tartu), Valga maakond (Valga), Viljandi maakond (Viljandi), Voru maakond (Voru)
Note: county centers are in parentheses

Dependent areas

Independence: 6 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 24 February (1918)

Constitution: adopted 28 June 1992

Legal system: based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Lennart MERI (since 21 October 1992); election last held 20 September 1992; (next to be held NA 1997); results - no candidate received majority; newly elected Parliament elected Lennart MERI (21 October 1992)
Head of government: Prime Minister Mart LAAR (since 21 October 1992)

Legislative branch: Ground Forces, Maritime Border Guard, National Guard (Kaitseliit), Security Forces (internal and border troops), Coast Guard
Parliament Riigikogu: elections last held 20 September 1992; (next to be held NA); results - Fatherland 21%, Safe Haven 14%, Popular Front 13%, M 10%, ENIP 8%, ERP 7%, ERL 7%, EP 2%, other 18%; seats - (101 total) Fatherland 29, Safe Haven 18, Popular Front 15, M 12, ENIP 10, ERP 8, ERL 8, EP 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NACC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Robert C. FRASURE
From the us chancery: 1030 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20,005, Suite 1000
From the us telephone: 011-[372] (6) 312-021 through 024
From the us fax: (202) 789-0471
From the us consulates general: New York
From the us embassy: Kentmanni 20, Tallin EE 0001
From the us mailing address: use embassy street address
From the us FAX: [372] (6) 312-025

Flag descriptionflag of Estonia: pre-1940 flag restored by Supreme Soviet in May 1990 - three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), black, and white

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Estonia - Economy 1994
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Economy overview: Bolstered by a widespread national desire to reintegrate into Western Europe, the Estonian government has pursued a program of market reforms and rough stabilization measures, which is rapidly transforming the economy. Two years after independence - and one year after the introduction of the kroon - Estonians are beginning to reap tangible benefits; inflation is low; production declines appear to have bottomed out; and living standards are rising. Economic restructuring is clearly underway with the once-dominant energy-intensive heavy industrial sectors giving way to labor-intensive light industry and the underdeveloped service sector. The private sector is growing rapidly; the share of the state enterprises in retail trade has steadily declined and by June 1993 accounted for only 12.5% of total turnover, and 70,000 new jobs have reportedly been created as a result of new business start-ups. Estonia's foreign trade has shifted rapidly from East to West with the Western industrialized countries now accounting for two-thirds of foreign trade.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: -5% (1993 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: employs 20% of work force; very efficient by Soviet standards; net exports of meat, fish, dairy products, and potatoes; imports of feedgrains for livestock; fruits and vegetables

Industries: accounts for 42% of labor force; oil shale, shipbuilding, phosphates, electric motors, excavators, cement, furniture, clothing, textiles, paper, shoes, apparel

Industrial production growth rate: -27% (1993)

Labor force: 750,000 (1992)
By occupation industry and construction: 42%
By occupation agriculture and forestry: 20%
By occupation other: 38% (1990)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 3.5% (May 1993; but large number of underemployed workers

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues:$223 million

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $765 million (f.o.b., 1993)
Commodities: textile 14%, food products 11%, vehicles 11%, metals 11% (1993)
Partners: Russia, Finland, Latvia, Germany, Ukraine

Imports: $865 million (c.i.f., 1993)
Commodities: machinery 18%, fuels 15%, vehicles 14%, textiles 10% (1993)
Partners: Finland, Russia, Sweden, Germany, Netherlands

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $650 million (end of 1991)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: kroons (EEK) per US$1 - 13.9 (January 1994), 13.2 (1993; note - kroons are tied to the German Deutschmark at a fixed rate of 8 to 1

Estonia - Energy 1994
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 22.9 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 14,245 kWh (1992)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Estonia - Communication 1994
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Estonia - Military 1994
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: 124.4 million kroons, NA% of GDP (forecast for 1993; note - conversion of the military budget into US dollars using the current exchange rate could produce misleading results

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Estonia - Transportation 1994
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 29
Usable: 18
With permanentsurface runways: 11
With runways over 3659 m: 0
With runways 2440-3659 m: 10
With runways 10602439 m: 8
Note: a C-130 can land on a 1,060-m airstrip

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: natural gas 420 km (1992)



Waterways: 500 km perennially navigable

Merchant marine: 69 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 406,405 GRT/537,016 DWT, bulk 6, cargo 50, container 2, oil tanker 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 6, short-sea passenger 4

Ports and terminals

Estonia - Transnational issues 1994
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Disputes international: none

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for illicit drugs from Central and Southwest Asia and Latin America to Western Europe; limited illicit opium producer; mostly for domestic consumption


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