Statistical information Finland 1994Finland

Map of Finland | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Finland in the World
Finland in the World

Iberostar Hotels


Finland - Introduction 1994
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Background: Long ruled by foreign powers, including Sweden and the pre-revolutionary Russian Empire, Finland finally declared independence in 1917. During World War II, Finland fought the USSR twice and then the Germans toward the end of the war. In the following half-century, the Finns made a remarkable transformation from a farm/forest economy to a diversified modern industrial economy. Per capita income has risen to the West European level.


Finland - Geography 1994
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Location: Nordic State, Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea between Sweden and Russia

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceArctic Region, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World

Area
Total area total: 337,030 km²
Land: 305,470 km²

Land boundaries: total 2,628 km, Norway 729 km, Sweden 586 km, Russia 1,313 km

Coastline: 1,126 km (excludes islands and coastal indentations)

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 6 nm
Continental shelf: 200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
Exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm
Territorial sea: 4 nm

Climate: cold temperate; potentially subarctic, but comparatively mild because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes

Terrain: mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes and low hills

Elevation

Natural resources: timber, copper, zinc, iron ore, silver
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 8%
Permanent crops: 0%
Meadows and pastures: 0%
Forest and woodland: 76%
Other: 16%

Irrigated land: 620 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: NA

Geography
Note: long boundary with Russia; Helsinki is northernmost national capital on European continent; population concentrated on small southwestern coastal plain


Finland - People 1994
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Population: 5,068,931 (July 1994 est.)
Growth rate: 0.34% (1994 est.)

Nationality: noun:Finn(s)

Ethnic groups: Finn, Swede, Lapp, Gypsy, Tatar

Languages: Finnish 93.5% (official), Swedish 6.3% (official), small Lapp- and Russian-speaking minorities

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 89%, Greek Orthodox 1%, none 9%, other 1%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 0.34% (1994 est.)

Birth rate: 12.41 births/1000 population (1994 est.)

Death rate: 9.84 deaths/1000 population (1994 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.81 migrant(s)/1000 population (1994 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: air pollution from manufacturing and power plants contributing to acid rain; water pollution from industrial wastes, agricultural chemicals; habitat loss threatens wildlife populations

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 5.3 deaths/1000 live births (1994 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 75.93 years
Male: 72.18 years
Female: 79.86 years (1994 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.79 children born/woman (1994 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.)
Total population: 100%
Male: NA%
Female: NA%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Finland - Government 1994
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Finland
Conventional short form:
local long form: Suomen Tasavalta
local short form; Suomi


Government type: republic

Capital: Helsinki

Administrative divisions: 12 provinces (laanit, singular - laani; Ahvenanmaa, Hame, Keski-Suomi, Kuopio, Kymi, Lappi, Mikkeli, Oulu, Pohjois-Karjala, Turku ja Pori, Uusimaa, Vaasa

Dependent areas

Independence: 6 December 1917 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 December (1917)

Constitution: 17 July 1919

Legal system: civil law system based on Swedish law; Supreme Court may request legislation interpreting or modifying laws; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Martti AHTISAARI (since 1 March 1994); election last held 31 January - 6 February 1994 (next to be held January 2000); results - Martti AHTISAARI 54%, Elisabeth REHN 46%
Head of government: Prime Minister Esko AHO (since 26 April 1991); Deputy Prime Minister Pertti SALOLAINEN (since at least January 1992)

Legislative branch: Army, Navy, Air Force, Frontier Guard (including Coast Guard)
Parliament Eduskunta: elections last held 17 March 1991 (next to be held March 1995); results - Center Party 24.8%, Social Democratic Party 22.1%, National Coalition (Conservative) Party 19.3%, Leftist Alliance (Communist) 10.1%, Green League 6.8%, Swedish People's Party 5.5%, Rural 4.8%, Finnish Christian League 3.1%, Liberal People's Party 0.8%; seats - (200 total) Center Party 55, Social Democratic Party 48, National Coalition (Conservative) Party 40, Leftist Alliance (Communist) 19, Swedish People's Party 12, Green League 10, Finnish Christian League 8, Rural 7, Liberal People's Party 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Korkein Oikeus)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, CERN, COCOM (cooperating), CSCE, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, ESA (associate), FAO, G-9, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MTCR, NAM (guest), NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNMOGIP, UNPROFOR, UNTSO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador John H. KELLY
From the us chancery: 3,216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,016
From the us telephone: [358] (0) 171,931
From the us fax: (202) 363-8,233
From the us consulates general: Los Angeles and New York
From the us embassy: Itainen Puistotie 14A, SF-00140, Helsinki
From the us mailing address: APO AE 9,723
From the us FAX: [358] (0) 174,681

Flag descriptionflag of Finland: white with a blue cross that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the DANNEBROG (Danish flag)

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Finland - Economy 1994
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Economy overview: Finland has a highly industrialized, largely free market economy, with per capita output two-thirds of the US figure. Its key economic sector is manufacturing - principally the wood, metals, and engineering industries. Trade is important, with the export of goods representing about 30% of GDP. Except for timber and several minerals, Finland depends on imports of raw materials, energy, and some components for manufactured goods. Because of the climate, agricultural development is limited to maintaining self-sufficiency in basic products. The economy, which experienced an average of 4.9% annual growth between 1987 and 1989, sank into deep recession in 1991 as growth contracted by 6.5%. The recession - which continued in 1992 with growth contracting by 4.1% - has been caused by economic overheating, depressed foreign markets, and the dismantling of the barter system between Finland and the former Soviet Union under which Soviet oil and gas had been exchanged for Finnish manufactured goods. The Finnish Government has proposed efforts to increase industrial competitiveness and efficiency by an increase in exports to Western markets, cuts in public expenditures, partial privatization of state enterprises, and changes in monetary policy. In June 1991 Helsinki had tied the markka to the European Union's (EU) European Currency Unit (ECU) to promote stability. Ongoing speculation resulting from a lack of confidence in the government's policies forced Helsinki to devalue the markka by about 12% in November 1991 and to indefinitely break the link in September 1992. The devaluations have boosted the competitiveness of Finnish exports to the extent the recession bottomed out in 1993 with renewed economic growth expected in 1994. Unemployment probably will remain a serious problem during the next few years, with the majority of Finnish firms facing a weak domestic market and the troubled German and Swedish export markets. Declining revenues, increased transfer payments, and extensive funding to bail out the banking system pushed the central government's budget deficit to nearly 13% in 1993. Helsinki continues to harmonize its economic policies with those of the EU during Finland's current EU membership bid. In early 1995, Finland is expected to join the European Union (formerly the European Community), thus broadening European economic unity.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: -2.6% (1993)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 5% of GDP (including forestry; livestock production, especially dairy cattle, predominates; forestry is an important export earner and a secondary occupation for the rural population; main crops - cereals, sugar beets, potatoes; 85% self-sufficient, but short of foodgrains and fodder grains; annual fish catch about 160,000 metric tons

Industries: metal products, shipbuilding, forestry and wood processing (pulp, paper), copper refining, foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles, clothing

Industrial production growth rate: 7.6% (1992 est.)

Labor force: 2.533 million
By occupation public services: 30.4%
By occupation industry: 20.9%
By occupation commerce: 15.0%
By occupation finance insurance and business services: 10.2%
By occupation agriculture and forestry: 8.6%
By occupation transport and communications: 7.7%
By occupation construction: 7.2%
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 22% (1993)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues:$26.8 billion

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $23.4 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
Commodities: timber, paper and pulp, ships, machinery, clothing and footwear
Partners: EC 53.2% (Germany 15.6%, UK 10.7%), EFTA 19.5% (Sweden 12.8%), US 5.9%, Japan 1.3%, Russia 2.8% (1992)

Imports: $18 billion (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
Commodities: foodstuffs, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, transport equipment, iron and steel, machinery, textile yarn and fabrics, fodder grains
Partners: EC 47.2% (Germany 16.9%, UK 8.7%), EFTA 19.0% (Sweden 11.7%), US 6.1%, Japan 5.5%, Russia 7.1% (1992)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $30 billion (December 1993)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: markkaa (FMk) per US$1 - 5.6920 (January 1994), 5.7123 (1993), 4.4794 (1992), 4.0440 (1991), 3.8235 (1990), 4.2912 (1989)


Finland - Energy 1994
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 55.3 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 11,050 kWh (1992)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Finland - Communication 1994
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Finland - Military 1994
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: exchange rate conversion - $1.6 billion, about 1.5% of GDP (1993)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Finland - Transportation 1994
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 160
Usable: 157
With permanentsurface runways: 66
With runways over 3659 m: 0
With runways 2440-3659 m: 26
With runways 1220-2439 m: 20

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: natural gas 580 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 6,675 km total (including Saimaa Canal; 3,700 km suitable for steamers

Merchant marine: 93 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,040,905 GRT/1,143,276 DWT, bulk 7, cargo 20, chemical tanker 5, liquefied gas 3, oil tanker 15, passenger 3, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 30, short-sea passenger 9

Ports and terminals


Finland - Transnational issues 1994
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Disputes international: none

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


Skytours


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