Statistical information Germany 1994Germany

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Germany in the World

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Germany - Introduction 1994
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Background: Germany_first united in 1871_suffered defeats in successive world wars and was occupied by the victorious Allied powers of the US, UK, France, and the Soviet Union in 1945. With the beginning of the Cold War and increasing tension between the US and Soviet Union, two German states were formed in 1949:the western Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and the eastern German Democratic Republic (GDR). The newly democratic FRG embedded itself in key Western economic and security organizations, the EU and NATO, while the Communist GDR was on the front line of the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact. The decline of the Soviet Union and end of the Cold War cleared the path for the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 and German re-unification in 1990. Germany has expended considerable funds; roughly $100 billion a year; in subsequent years working to bring eastern productivity and wages up to western standards, with mixed results. Unemployment which in the east is nearly double that in the west; has grown over the last several years, primarily as a result of structural problems like an inflexible labor market.


Germany - Geography 1994
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Location: Central Europe, bordering the North Sea between France and Poland

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceArctic Region, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World

Area
Total area total: 356,910 km²
Land: 349,520 km²

Land boundaries: total 3,621 km, Austria 784 km, Belgium 167 km, Czech Republic 646 km, Denmark 68 km, France 451 km, Luxembourg 138 km, Netherlands 577 km, Poland 456 km, Switzerland 334 km

Coastline: 2,389 km

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: 200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 3 nm in North Sea and Schleswig-Holstein coast of Baltic Sea (extends, at one point, to 16 nm in the Helgolander Bucht); 12 nm in remainder of Baltic Sea

Climate: temperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers; occasional warm, tropical foehn wind; high relative humidity

Terrain: lowlands in north, uplands in center, Bavarian Alps in south

Elevation

Natural resources: iron ore, coal, potash, timber, lignite, uranium, copper, natural gas, salt, nickel
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 34%
Permanent crops: 1%
Meadows and pastures: 16%
Forest and woodland: 30%
Other: 19%

Irrigated land: 4,800 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: NA

Geography
Note: strategic location on North European Plain and along the entrance to the Baltic Sea


Germany - People 1994
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Population: 81,087,506 (July 1994 est.)
Growth rate: 0.36% (1994 est.)

Nationality: noun:German(s)

Ethnic groups: German 95.1%, Turkish 2.3%, Italians 0.7%, Greeks 0.4%, Poles 0.4%, other 1.1% (made up largely of people fleeing the war in the former Yugoslavia)

Languages: German

Religions: Protestant 45%, Roman Catholic 37%, unaffiliated or other 18%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 0.36% (1994 est.)

Birth rate: 11.04 births/1000 population (1994 est.)

Death rate: 10.89 deaths/1000 population (1994 est.)

Net migration rate: 3.39 migrant(s)/1000 population (1994 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: emissions from coal-burning utilities and industries in the southeast and lead emissions from vehicle exhausts (the result of continued use of leaded fuels) contribute to air pollution; acid rain, resulting from sulfur dioxide emissions, is damaging forests; heavy pollution in the Baltic Sea from raw sewage and industrial effluents from rivers in eastern Germany

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 6.5 deaths/1000 live births (1994 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 76.34 years
Male: 73.22 years
Female: 79.64 years (1994 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.47 children born/woman (1994 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1977 est.)
Total population: 99%
Male: NA%
Female: NA%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Germany - Government 1994
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Country name
Conventional long form: Federal Republic of Germany
Conventional short form:
local long form: Bundesrepublik Deutschland
local short form; Deutschland


Government type: federal republic

Capital: Berlin
Note: the shift from Bonn to Berlin will take place over a period of years with Bonn retaining many administrative functions and several ministries

Administrative divisions: 16 states (laender, singular - land; Baden-Wurttemberg, Bayern, Berlin, Brandenburg, Bremen, Hamburg, Hessen, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Saarland, Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt, Schleswig-Holstein, Thuringen

Dependent areas

Independence: 18 January 1871 (German Empire unification; divided into four zones of occupation (UK, US, USSR, and later, France) in 1945 following World War II; Federal Republic of Germany (FRG or West Germany) proclaimed 23 May 1949 and included the former UK, US, and French zones; German Democratic Republic (GDR or East Germany) proclaimed 7 October 1949 and included the former USSR zone; unification of West Germany and East Germany took place 3 October 1990; all four power rights formally relinquished 15 March 1991

National holiday: German Unity Day (Day of Unity), 3 October (1990)

Constitution: 23 May 1949, known as Basic Law; became constitution of the united German people 3 October 1990

Legal system: civil law system with indigenous concepts; judicial review of legislative acts in the Federal Constitutional Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Dr. Richard von WEIZSACKER (since 1 July 1984); note - presidential elections were held on 23 May 1994; Roman HERZOG was the winner and will be inaugurated 1 July 1994
Head of government: Chancellor Dr. Helmut KOHL (since 4 October 1982)

Legislative branch: Army, Navy, Air Force
Federal Assembly Bundestag: last held 2 December 1990 (next to be held by 16 October 1994); results - CDU 36.7%, SPD 33.5%, FDP 11.0%, CSU 7.1%, Green Party (West Germany) 3.9%, PDS 2.4%, Republikaner 2.1%, Alliance 90/Green Party (East Germany) 1.2%, other 2.1%; seats - (662 total) CDU 268, CSU 51, SPD 239, FDP 79, PDS 17, Greens/Alliance '90 8; elected by direct popular vote under a system combining direct and proportional representation; a party must win 5% of the national vote or 3 direct mandates to gain representation
Federal Council Bundesrat: State governments are directly represented by votes; each has 3 to 6 votes depending on size and are required to vote as a block; current composition:votes - (68 total) SPD-led states 37, CDU-led states 31

Judicial branch: Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australian Group, BDEAC, BIS, CBSS, CCC, CDB (non-regional), CE, CERN, COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECE, EIB, ESA, FAO, G-5, G-7, G-10, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNHCR, UNOMIG, UNOSOM, UNTAC, UPU, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Richard C. HOLBROOKE
From the us chancery: 4,645 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20,007
From the us telephone: [49] (228) 3,391
From the us fax: (202) 298-4,249
From the us consulates general: Frankfurt, Hamburg, Leipzig, Munich, and Stuttgart
From the us consulates: Manila (Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands) and Wellington (America Samoa)
From the us embassy: Deichmanns Avenue 29, 53,170 Bonn
From the us mailing address: Unit 21,701, Bonn; APO AE 9,080
From the us FAX: [49] (228) 339-2,663
From the us branch office: Berlin

Flag descriptionflag of Germany: three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and yellow

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Germany - Economy 1994
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Economy overview: With the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe in 1989, prospects seemed bright for a fairly rapid incorporation of East Germany into the highly successful West German economy. The Federal Republic, however, continues to experience difficulties in integrating and modernizing eastern Germany, and the tremendous costs of unification pushed western Germany into its deepest recession since World War II. The western German economy shrank by 1.9% in 1993 as the Bundesbank maintained high interest rates to offset the inflationary effects of large government deficits and high wage settlements. Eastern Germany grew by 7.1% in 1993 but this was from a shrunken base. Despite government transfers to the east amounting to nearly $110 billion annually, a self-sustaining economy in the region is still some years away. The bright spots are eastern Germany's construction, transportation, telecommunications, and service sectors, which have experienced strong growth. Western Germany has an advanced market economy and is a world leader in exports. It has a highly urbanized and skilled population that enjoys excellent living standards, abundant leisure time, and comprehensive social welfare benefits. Western Germany is relatively poor in natural resources, coal being the most important mineral. Western Germany's world-class companies manufacture technologically advanced goods. The region's economy is mature:services and manufacturing account for the dominant share of economic activity, and raw materials and semimanufactured goods constitute a large portion of imports. In recent years, manufacturing has accounted for about 31% of GDP, with other sectors contributing lesser amounts. Gross fixed investment in 1993 accounted for about 20.5% of GDP. GDP in the western region is now $19,400 per capita, or 78% of US per capita GDP. Eastern Germany's economy appears to be changing from one anchored on manufacturing into a more service-oriented economy. The German government, however, is intent on maintaining a manufacturing base in the east and is considering a policy for subsidizing industrial cores in the region. Eastern Germany's share of all-German GDP is only 8% and eastern productivity is just 30% that of the west even though eastern wages are at roughly 70% of western levels. The privatization agency for eastern Germany, Treuhand, has privatized more than 90% of the 13,000 firms under its control and will likely wind down operations in 1994. Private investment in the region continues to be lackluster, resulting primarily from the deepening recession in western Germany and excessively high eastern wages. Eastern Germany has one of the world's largest reserves of low-grade lignite coal but little else in the way of mineral resources. The quality of statistics from eastern Germany is improving, yet many gaps remain; the federal government began producing all-German data for select economic statistics at the start of 1992. The most challenging economic problem is promoting eastern Germany's economic reconstruction - specifically, finding the right mix of fiscal, monetary, regulatory, and tax policies that will spur investment in eastern Germany - without destabilizing western Germany's economy or damaging relations with West European partners. The government hopes a "solidarity pact" among labor unions, business, state governments, and the SPD opposition will provide the right mix of wage restraints, investment incentives, and spending cuts to stimulate eastern recovery. Finally, the homogeneity of the German economic culture has been changed by the admission of large numbers of immigrants.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate
Germany: -1.2% (1993)
Western: -1.9% (1993)
Eastern: 7.1% (1993)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products
Western: accounts for about 2% of GDP (including fishing and forestry); diversified crop and livestock farming; principal crops and livestock include potatoes, wheat, barley, sugar beets, fruit, cabbage, cattle, pigs, poultry; net importer of food
Eastern: accounts for about 10% of GDP (including fishing and forestry); principal crops - wheat, rye, barley, potatoes, sugar beets, fruit; livestock products include pork, beef, chicken, milk, hides and skins; net importer of food

Industries
Western: among world's largest producers of iron, steel, coal, cement, chemicals, machinery, vehicles, machine tools, electronics; food and beverages
Eastern: metal fabrication, chemicals, brown coal, shipbuilding, machine building, food and beverages, textiles, petroleum refining

Industrial production growth rate

Labor force: 36.75 million
By occupation industry: 41%
By occupation agriculture: 6%
By occupation other: 53% (1987)
Labor force

Unemployment rate
Western: 8.1% (December 1993)
Eastern: 15.4% (December 1993)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues:$918 billion

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $392 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
Commodities: manufactures 89.0% (including machines and machine tools, chemicals, motor vehicles, iron and steel products), agricultural products 5.4%, raw materials 2.2%, fuels 1.3% (1922)
Partners: EC 51.3% (France 11.1%, Netherlands 8.3%, Italy 8.2%, UK 7.9%, Belgium-Luxembourg 7.5%), EFTA 13.3%, US 6.8%, Eastern Europe 5.0%, OPEC 3.3% (1993)

Imports: $374.6 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
Commodities: manufactures 74.9%, agricultural products 10.3%, fuels 7.4%, raw materials 5.5% (1992)
Partners: EC 49.7 (France 11.0%, Netherlands 9.2%, Italy 8.8%, UK 6.6%, Belgium-Luxembourg 6.7%), EFTA 12.7%, US 5.9%, Japan 5.2%, Eastern Europe 4.8%, OPEC 2.6% (1993)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $NA
Industrial production: western:growth rate -7% (1993)
Eastern: growth rate $NA

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: deutsche marks (DM) per US$1 - 1.7431 (January 1994), 1.6533 (1993), 1.5617 (1992), 1.6595 (1991), 1.6157 (1990), 1.8800 (1989)


Germany - Energy 1994
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 580 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 7,160 kWh (1992)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Germany - Communication 1994
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Germany - Military 1994
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: exchange rate conversion - $37.3 billion, 2% of GDP (1993)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Germany - Transportation 1994
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 590
Usable: 583
With permanentsurface runways: 308
With runways over 3659 m: 5
With runways 2440-3659 m: 85
With runways 1220-2439 m: 97

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: crude oil 3,644 km; petroleum products 3,946 km; natural gas 97,564 km (1988)

Railways

Roadways

Waterways
Western: 5,222 km, of which almost 70% are usable by craft of 1,000-metric-ton capacity or larger; major rivers include the Rhine and Elbe; Kiel Canal is an important connection between the Baltic Sea and North Sea
Eastern: 2,319 km (1988)

Merchant marine: 485 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,541,441 GRT/5,835,511 DWT, barge carrier 7, bulk 11, cargo 241, chemical tanker 20, combination bulk 6, combination ore/oil 5, container 132, liquefied gas tanker 16, oil tanker 7, passenger 3, railcar carrier 5, refrigerated cargo 7, roll-on/roll-off cargo 20, short-sea passenger 5
Note: the German register includes ships of the former East and West Germany

Ports and terminals


Germany - Transnational issues 1994
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Disputes international: none

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: source of precursor chemicals for South American cocaine processors; transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and Latin American cocaine for West European markets


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