Statistical information Greece 1994Greece

Map of Greece | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Greece in the World
Greece in the World

Qatar Airways


Greece - Introduction 1994
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Background: Greece achieved its independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1829. During the second half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century it gradually added neighboring islands and territories with Greek-speaking populations. Following the defeat of communist rebels in 1949 Greece joined NATO in 1952. A military dictatorship which in 1967 had suspended many political liberties and forced the king to flee the country was itself overthrown seven years later. Democratic elections in 1974 abolished the monarchy and created a parliamentary republic; Greece joined the EU in 1981.


Greece - Geography 1994
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Location: Balkan State, Southern Europe, bordering the Mediterranean Sea between Turkey and Bulgaria

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceAfrica, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World

Area
Total area total: 131,940 km²
Land: 130,800 km²

Land boundaries: total 1,210 km, Albania 282 km, Bulgaria 494 km, Turkey 206 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 228 km

Coastline: 13,676 km

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: 200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
Territorial sea: 6 nm, but Greece has threatened to claim 12 nm

Climate: temperate; mild, wet winters; hot, dry summers

Terrain: mostly mountains with ranges extending into sea as peninsulas or chains of islands

Elevation

Natural resources: bauxite, lignite, magnesite, petroleum, marble
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 23%
Permanent crops: 8%
Meadows and pastures: 40%
Forest and woodland: 20%
Other: 9%

Irrigated land: 11,900 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: subject to severe earthquakes

Geography
Note: strategic location dominating the Aegean Sea and southern approach to Turkish Straits; a peninsular country, possessing an archipelago of about 2,000 islands


Greece - People 1994
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Population: 10,564,630 (July 1994 est.)
Growth rate: 0.84% (1994 est.)

Nationality: noun:Greek(s)

Ethnic groups: Greek 98%, other 2%
Note: the Greek Government states there are no ethnic divisions in Greece

Languages: Greek (official), English, French

Religions: Greek Orthodox 98%, Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 0.84% (1994 est.)

Birth rate: 10.5 births/1000 population (1994 est.)

Death rate: 9.32 deaths/1000 population (1994 est.)

Net migration rate: 7.21 migrant(s)/1000 population (1994 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: air pollution; water pollution

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 8.6 deaths/1000 live births (1994 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 77.71 years
Male: 75.2 years
Female: 80.35 years (1994 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.45 children born/woman (1994 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Total population: 93%
Male: 98%
Female: 89%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Greece - Government 1994
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Country name
Conventional long form: Hellenic Republic
Conventional short form:
local long form: Elliniki Dhimokratia
local short form; Ellas

Former: Kingdom of Greece

Government type: presidential parliamentary government; monarchy rejected by referendum 8 December 1974

Capital: Athens

Administrative divisions: 52 prefectures (nomoi, singular - nomos; Aitolia kai Akarnania, Akhaia, Argolis, Arkadhia, Arta, Attiki, Dhodhekanisos, Dhrama, Evritania, Evros, Evvoia, Florina, Fokis, Fthiotis, Grevena, Ilia, Imathia, Ioannina, Iraklion, Kardhitsa, Kastoria, Kavala, Kefallinia, Kerkira, Khalkidhiki, Khania, Khios, Kikladhes, Kilkis, Korinthia, Kozani, Lakonia, Larisa, Lasithi, Lesvos, Levkas, Magnisia, Messinia, Pella, Pieria, Piraievs, Preveza, Rethimni, Rodhopi, Samos, Serrai, Thesprotia, Thessaloniki, Trikala, Voiotia, Xanthi, Zakinthos, autonomous region:Agion Oros (Mt. Athos)

Dependent areas

Independence: 1829 (from the Ottoman Empire)

National holiday: Independence Day, 25 March (1821) (proclamation of the war of independence)

Constitution: 11 June 1975

Legal system: based on codified Roman law; judiciary divided into civil, criminal, and administrative courts

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Konstantinos KARAMANLIS (since 5 May 1990); election last held 4 May 1990 (next to be held May 1995); results - Konstantinos KARAMANLIS was elected by Parliament
Head of government: Prime Minister Andreas PAPANDREOU (since 10 October 1993)

Legislative branch: Hellenic Army, Hellenic Navy, Hellenic Air Force, National Guard, Police
Chamber of Deputies Vouli ton Ellinon: elections last held 10 October 1993 (next to be held by NA October 1997); results - PASOK 46.88%, ND 39.30%, Political Spring 4.87%, KKE 4.54%, and Progressive Left Coalition 2.94%; seats - (300 total) PASOK 170, ND 111, Political Spring 10, KKE 9

Judicial branch: Supreme Judicial Court, Special Supreme Tribunal

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: Australian Group, BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE, CERN, COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECE, EIB, FAO, G-6, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNOMIG, UNOSOM, UPU, WEU (associate), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Thomas M.T. NILES
From the us chancery: 2,221 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,008
From the us telephone: [30] (1) 721-2,951 or 721-8,401
From the us fax: (202) 939-5,824
From the us consulates general: Thessaloniki
From the us consulates: New Orleans
From the us embassy: 91 Vasilissis Sophias Boulevard, 10,160 Athens
From the us mailing address: PSC 108, Athens; APO AE 9,842
From the us FAX: [30] (1) 645-6,282

Flag descriptionflag of Greece: nine equal horizontal stripes of blue alternating with white; there is a blue square in the upper hoist-side corner bearing a white cross; the cross symbolizes Greek Orthodoxy, the established religion of the country

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Greece - Economy 1994
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Economy overview: Greece has a mixed capitalist economy with the basic entrepreneurial system overlaid in 1981-89 by a socialist system that enlarged the public sector from 55% of GDP in 1981 to about 70% in 1989. Since then, the public sector has been reduced to about 60% of GDP. Tourism continues as a major source of foreign exchange, and agriculture is self-sufficient except for meat, dairy products, and animal feedstuffs. Over the last decade, real GDP growth has averaged 1.6% a year, compared with the European Union average of 2.2%. Inflation is four times the EU average, and the national debt has reached 140% of GDP, the highest in the EU. Prime Minister PAPANDREOU will probably only make limited progress correcting the economy's problems of high inflation, large budget deficit, and decaying infrastructure. His economic program suggests that although he will shun his expansionary policies of the 1980s, he will avoid tough measures needed to slow inflation or reduce the state's role in the economy. He has limited the previous government's privatization plans, for example, and has called for generous welfare spending and real wage increases. In 1994, the GDP growth rate is likely to remain low, and inflation probably will accelerate, remaining the highest in the EU. PAPANDREOU'S failure to improve the country's economic performance will further strain relations with the EU. Since Greece's accession to the then EC in 1981, Athens' heavy reliance on EU aid - amounting to about 6% of Greek GDP annually - and its poor use of Union funds have riled Brussels. Its ailing economy will continue to be a drag on European economic and monetary union.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 1% (1993)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: including fishing and forestry, accounts for 15% of GDP and 24% of the labor force; principal products - wheat, corn, barley, sugar beets, olives, tomatoes, wine, tobacco, potatoes; self-sufficient in food except meat, dairy products, and animal feedstuffs

Industries: food and tobacco processing, textiles, chemicals, metal products, tourism, mining, petroleum

Industrial production growth rate: -1.3% (1992; accounts for 20% of GDP

Labor force: 4.083 million
By occupation services: 48%
By occupation agriculture: 24%
By occupation industry: 28% (1993)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 9.5% (1993)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues:$28.3 billion

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $6 billion (f.o.b., 1992)
Commodities: manufactured goods 53%, foodstuffs 34%, fuels 5%
Partners: Germany 23%, Italy 18%, France 7%, UK 7%, US 4% (1992)

Imports: $23.3 billion (c.i.f., 1992)
Commodities: manufactured goods 72%, foodstuffs 15%, fuels 10%
Partners: Germany 20%, Italy 14%, France 8%, Netherlands 7%, Japan 6% (1992)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $23.1 billion (1992)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: drachmae (Dr) per US$1 - 250.28 (January 1994), 229.26 (1993), 190.62 (1992), 182.27 (1991), 158.51 (1990), 162.42 (1989)


Greece - Energy 1994
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 36.4 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 3,610 kWh (1992)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Greece - Communication 1994
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Greece - Military 1994
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: exchange rate conversion - $4.0 billion, 5.4% of GDP (1993)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Greece - Transportation 1994
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 78
Usable: 77
With permanentsurface runways: 63
With runways over 3659 m: 0
With runways 2440-3659 m: 20
With runways 1220-2439 m: 24

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: crude oil 26 km; petroleum products 547 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 80 km; system consists of three coastal canals; including the Corinth Canal (6 km) which crosses the Isthmus of Corinth connecting the Gulf of Corinth with the Saronic Gulf and shortens the sea voyage from the Adriatic to Piraievs (Piraeus) by 325 km; and three unconnected rivers

Merchant marine: 1,059 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 29,343,367 GRT/54,249,294 DWT, bulk 453, cargo 117, chemical tanker 20, combination bulk 23, combination ore/oil 38, container 36, liquefied gas 6, livestock carrier 1, oil tanker 251, passenger 15, passenger-cargo 2, refrigerated cargo 11, roll-on/roll-off cargo 17, short-sea passenger 65, specialized tanker 3, vehicle carrier 1
Note: ethnic Greeks also own large numbers of ships under the registry of Liberia, Panama, Cyprus, Malta, and The Bahamas

Ports and terminals


Greece - Transnational issues 1994
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Disputes international: air, continental shelf, and territorial water disputes with Turkey in Aegean Sea; Cyprus question; dispute with The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia over name and symbol implying territorial claim

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis and limited opium; mostly for domestic production; serves as a gateway to Europe for traffickers smuggling cannabis and heroin from the Middle East and Southwest Asia to the West and precursor chemicals to the East; transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan route


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