Statistical information Haiti 1994Haiti

Map of Haiti | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Haiti in the World
Haiti in the World

Haiti - Introduction 1994
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Background: One of the poorest countries in the Western Hemisphere Haiti has been plagued by political violence for most of its history. Over three decades of dictatorship followed by military rule ended in 1990 when Jean-Bertrand ARISTIDE was elected president. Most of his term was usurped by a military takeover but he was able to return to office in 1994.

Haiti - Geography 1994
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Location: Caribbean, in the northern Caribbean Sea, about 90 km southeast of Cuba

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceCentral America and the Caribbean, Standard Time Zones of the World

Total area total: 27,750 km²
Land: 27,560 km²

Land boundaries: total 275 km, Dominican Republic 275 km

Coastline: 1,771 km

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Continental shelf: to depth of exploitation
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; semiarid where mountains in east cut off trade winds

Terrain: mostly rough and mountainous


Natural resources: bauxite
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 20%
Permanent crops: 13%
Meadows and pastures: 18%
Forest and woodland: 4%
Other: 45%

Irrigated land: 750 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: lies in the middle of the hurricane belt and subject to severe storms from June to October; occasional flooding and earthquakes

Note: shares island of Hispaniola with Dominican Republic (western one-third is Haiti, eastern two-thirds is the Dominican Republic)

Haiti - People 1994
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Population: 6,491,450 (July 1994 est.)
Growth rate: 1.63% (1994 est.)

Nationality: noun:Haitian(s)

Ethnic groups: black 95%, mulatto and European 5%

Languages: French (official) 10%, Creole

Religions: Roman Catholic 80% (of which an overwhelming majority also practice Voodoo), Protestant 16% (Baptist 10%, Pentecostal 4%, Adventist 1%, other 1%), none 1%, other 3% (1982)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.63% (1994 est.)

Birth rate: 39.72 births/1000 population (1994 est.)

Death rate: 18.78 deaths/1000 population (1994 est.)

Net migration rate: -4.67 migrant(s)/1000 population (1994 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: deforestation; soil erosion

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 108.5 deaths/1000 live births (1994 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 45.11 years
Male: 43.45 years
Female: 46.85 years (1994 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.94 children born/woman (1994 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Total population: 53%
Male: 59%
Female: 47%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Haiti - Government 1994
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Haiti
Conventional short form:
local long form: Republique d'Haiti
local short form

Government type: republic

Capital: Port-au-Prince

Administrative divisions: 9 departments, (departements, singular - departement; Artibonite, Centre, Grand'Anse, Nord, Nord-Est, Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Est

Dependent areas

Independence: 1 January 1804 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 January (1804)

Constitution: constitution approved March 1987, suspended June 1988, most articles reinstated March 1989; October 1991, government claims to be observing the Constitution

Legal system: based on Roman civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Jean-Bertrand ARISTIDE (since 7 February 1991), ousted in a coup in September 1991, but still recognized by international community as Chief of State; election last held 16 December 1990 (next to be held by December 1995); results - Rev. Jean-Bertrand ARISTIDE 67.5%, Marc BAZIN 14.2%, Louis DEJOIE 4.9%
Head of government: acting Prime Minister Robert MALVAL (since August 1993)

Legislative branch: Army (including Police), Navy, Air Force
Senate: elections last held 18 January 1993, widely condemned as illegitimate (next to be held December 1994); results - percent of vote NA; seats - (27 total) FNCD 12, ANDP 8, PAIN 2, MRN 1, RDNP 1, PNT 1, independent 2
Chamber of Deputies: elections last held 16 December 1990, with runoff held 20 January 1991 (next to be held by December 1994); results - percent of vote NA; seats - (83 total) FNCD 27, ANDP 17, PDCH 7, PAIN 6, RDNP 6, MDN 5, PNT 3, MKN 2, MODELH 2, MRN 1, independents 5, other 2

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal (Cour de Cassation)

Political parties and leaders


Diplomatic representation
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador William Lacy SWING
From the us chancery: 2,311 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,008
From the us telephone: [509] 22-0354, 22-0368, 22-0200, or 22-0612
From the us fax: (202) 745-7,215
From the us consulates general: Boston, Chicago, Miami, New York, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)
From the us embassy: Harry Truman Boulevard, Port-au-Prince
From the us mailing address: P. O. Box 1761, Port-au-Prince
From the us FAX: [509] 23-1641

Flag descriptionflag of Haiti: two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a centered white rectangle bearing the coat of arms, which contains a palm tree flanked by flags and two cannons above a scroll bearing the motto L'UNION FAIT LA FORCE (Union Makes Strength)

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Haiti - Economy 1994
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Economy overview: About 75% of the population live in abject poverty. Agriculture is mainly small-scale subsistence farming and employs nearly three-fourths of the work force. The majority of the population does not have ready access to safe drinking water, adequate medical care, or sufficient food. Few social assistance programs exist, and the lack of employment opportunities remains one of the most critical problems facing the economy, along with soil erosion and political instability. Trade sanctions applied by the Organization of American States in response to the September 1991 coup against President ARISTIDE have further damaged the economy. Output continued to drop in 1993 although not as sharply as in 1992.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: -13% (FY92 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 28% of GDP and employs around 70% of work force; mostly small-scale subsistence farms; commercial crops - coffee, mangoes, sugarcane, wood; staple crops - rice, corn, sorghum; shortage of wheat flour

Industries: sugar refining, textiles, flour milling, cement manufacturing, tourism, light assembly industries based on imported parts

Industrial production growth rate: -2% (1991 est.), accounts for 15% of GDP

Labor force: 2.3 million
By occupation agriculture: 66%
By occupation services: 25%
By occupation industry: 9%
By occupation note: shortage of skilled labor, unskilled labor abundant (1982)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 25%-50% (1991)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues:$300 million

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: 1 October - 30 September

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $135 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
Commodities: light manufactures 65%, coffee 19%, other agriculture 8%, other 8%
Partners: US 84%, Italy 4%, France 3%, other industrial countries 6%, less developed countries 3% (1987)

Imports: $423 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
Commodities: machines and manufactures 34%, food and beverages 22%, petroleum products 14%, chemicals 10%, fats and oils 9%
Partners: US 64%, Netherlands Antilles 5%, Japan 5%, France 4%, Canada 3%, Germany 3% (1987)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $838 million (December 1990)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: gourdes (G) per US$1 - 12.00 (1 July 1993), 8.4 (December 1991), fixed rate of 5.000 through second quarter of 1991

Haiti - Energy 1994
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 480 million kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 75 kWh (1992)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Haiti - Communication 1994
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Haiti - Military 1994
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: exchange rate conversion - $34 million, 1.5% of GDP (1988 est.)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Haiti - Transportation 1994
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 14
Usable: 11
With permanentsurface runways: 3
With runways over 3659 m: 0
With runways 2440-3659 m: 1
With runways 1220-2439 m: 3

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways





Waterways: negligible; less than 100 km navigable

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Haiti - Transnational issues 1994
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Disputes international: claims US-administered Navassa Island

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for cocaine and marijuana en route to the US and Europe

Undercover Tourist

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