Statistical information Indonesia 1994Indonesia

Map of Indonesia | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Indonesia in the World
Indonesia in the World

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Indonesia - Introduction 1994
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Background: Indonesia declared its independence in 1945 from the Netherlands, a claim disputed, then recognized by the Dutch in 1949. In 1975 Indonesian troops occupied Portuguese East Timor. Current issues include implementing IMF-mandated reforms (particularly restructuring and recapitalizing the insolvent banking sector), effecting a transition to a popularly elected government, addressing longstanding grievances over the role of the ethnic Chinese business class and charges of cronyism and corruption, alleged human rights violations by the military, the role of the military and religion in politics, and growing pressures for some form of independence or autonomy by Aceh, Irian Jaya, and East Timor.

Indonesia - Geography 1994
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Location: Southeastern Asia, between Malaysia and Australia

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceOceania, Southeast Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World

Total area total: 1,919,440 km²
Land: 1,826,440 km²

Land boundaries: total 2,602 km, Malaysia 1,782 km, Papua New Guinea 820 km

Coastline: 54,716 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands

Terrain: mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains


Natural resources: petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 8%
Permanent crops: 3%
Meadows and pastures: 7%
Forest and woodland: 67%
Other: 15%

Irrigated land: 75,500 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: occasional floods, severe droughts, and tsunamis

Note: archipelago of 13,500 islands (6,000 inhabited; straddles Equator; strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from Indian Ocean to Pacific Ocean

Indonesia - People 1994
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Population: 200,409,741 (July 1994 est.)
Growth rate: 1.59% (1994 est.)

Nationality: noun:Indonesian(s)

Ethnic groups: Javanese 45%, Sundanese 14%, Madurese 7.5%, coastal Malays 7.5%, other 26%

Languages: Bahasa Indonesia (modified form of Malay; official), English, Dutch, local dialects the most widely spoken of which is Javanese

Religions: Muslim 87%, Protestant 6%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 2%, Buddhist 1%, other 1% (1985)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.59% (1994 est.)

Birth rate: 24.45 births/1000 population (1994 est.)

Death rate: 8.6 deaths/1000 population (1994 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1994 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: deforestation; water pollution from industrial wastes, sewage; air pollution in urban areas

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 67.3 deaths/1000 live births (1994 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 60.74 years
Male: 58.7 years
Female: 62.88 years (1994 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.8 children born/woman (1994 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Total population: 77%
Male: 84%
Female: 68%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Indonesia - Government 1994
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Indonesia
Conventional short form: local long form: Republik Indonesia
Local short form;former name: Netherlands East Indies; Dutch East Indies

Government type: republic

Capital: Jakarta

Administrative divisions: 24 provinces (propinsi-propinsi, singular - propinsi), 2 special regions* (daerah-daerah istimewa, singular - daerah istimewa), and 1 special capital city district** (daerah khusus ibukota; Aceh*, Bali, Bengkulu, Irian Jaya, Jakarta Raya**, Jambi, Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur, Kalimantan Barat, Kalimantan Selatan, Kalimantan Tengah, Kalimantan Timur, Lampung, Maluku, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Riau, Sulawesi Selatan, Sulawesi Tengah, Sulawesi Tenggara, Sulawesi Utara, Sumatera Barat, Sumatera Selatan, Sumatera Utara, Timor Timur, Yogyakarta*

Dependent areas

Independence: 17 August 1945 (proclaimed independence; on 27 December 1949, Indonesia became legally independent from the Netherlands)

National holiday: Independence Day, 17 August (1945)

Constitution: August 1945, abrogated by Federal Constitution of 1949 and Provisional Constitution of 1950, restored 5 July 1959

Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law, substantially modified by indigenous concepts and by new criminal procedures code; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 17 years of age; universal and married persons regardless of age

Executive branch: chief of state and head of government:President Gen. (Ret.) SOEHARTO (since 27 March 1968; Vice President Gen. (Ret.) Try SUTRISNO (since 11 March 1993)

Legislative branch: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police
House of Representatives: (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat or DPR) elections last held on 8 June 1992 (next to be held NA 1997); results - GOLKAR 68%, PPP 17%, PDI 15%; seats - (500 total, 400 elected, 100 military representatives appointed) GOLKAR 282, PPP 62, PDI 56
Note: the People's Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat or MPR) includes the DPR plus 500 indirectly elected members who meet every five years to elect the president and vice president and, theoretically, to determine national policy

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Mahkamah Agung)

Political parties and leaders


Diplomatic representation
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Robert L. BARRY
From the us chancery: 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,036
From the us telephone: [62] (21) 360-360
From the us fax: (202) 775-5,365
From the us consulates general: Chicago, Houston, New York, and Los Angeles
From the us consulates: Medan, Surabaya
From the us embassy: Medan Merdeka Selatan 5, Box 1, Jakarta
From the us mailing address: APO AP 96,520
From the us FAX: [62] (21) 386-2,259

Flag descriptionflag of Indonesia: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; similar to the flag of Monaco, which is shorter; also similar to the flag of Poland, which is white (top) and red

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Indonesia - Economy 1994
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Economy overview: Indonesia is a mixed economy with some socialist institutions and central planning but with a recent emphasis on deregulation and private enterprise. Indonesia has extensive natural wealth, yet, with a large and rapidly increasing population, it remains a poor country. Real GDP growth in 1985-93 averaged about 6%, quite impressive, but not sufficient to both slash underemployment and absorb the 2.3 million workers annually entering the labor force. Agriculture, including forestry and fishing, is an important sector, accounting for 21% of GDP and over 50% of the labor force. The staple crop is rice. Once the world's largest rice importer, Indonesia is now nearly self-sufficient. Plantation crops - rubber and palm oil - and textiles and plywood are being encouraged for both export and job generation. Industrial output now accounts for almost 40% of GDP and is based on a supply of diverse natural resources, including crude oil, natural gas, timber, metals, and coal. Foreign investment has also boosted manufacturing output and exports in recent years. Indeed, the economy's growth is highly dependent on the continuing expansion of nonoil exports. Japan remains Indonesia's most important customer and supplier of aid. Rapid growth in the money supply in 1989-90 prompted Jakarta to implement a tight monetary policy in 1991, forcing the private sector to go to foreign banks for investment financing. Real interest rates remained above 10% and off-shore commercial debt grew. The growth in off-shore debt prompted Jakarta to limit foreign borrowing beginning in late 1991. Despite the continued problems in moving toward a more open financial system and the persistence of a fairly tight credit situation, GDP growth in 1992 and 1993 has matched the government target of 6%-7% annual growth.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 6.5% (1993 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 21% of GDP; subsistence food production; small-holder and plantation production for export; main products are rice, cassava, peanuts, rubber, cocoa, coffee, palm oil, copra, other tropical products, poultry, beef, pork, eggs

Industries: petroleum and natural gas, textiles, mining, cement, chemical fertilizers, plywood, food, rubber

Industrial production growth rate: 11.6% (1989 est.), accounts 35% of GDP

Labor force: 67 million
By occupation agriculture: 55%
By occupation manufacturing: 10%
By occupation construction: 4%
By occupation transport and communications: 3% (1985est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 3% official rate; underemployment 45% (1993 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues:$32.8 billion

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $38.2 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
Commodities: petroleum and gas 28%, clothing and fabrics 15%, plywood 11%, footwear 4% (1992)
Partners: Japan 32%, US 13%, Singapore 9%, South Korea 6% (1992)

Imports: $28.3 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
Commodities: machinery 37%, semi-finished goods 16%, chemicals 14%, raw materials 10%, transport equipment 7%, food stuffs 6%, petroleum products 4%, consumer goods 3% (1992)
Partners: Japan 22%, US 14%, Germany 8%, South Korea 7%, Singapore 6%, Australia 5%, Taiwan 5% (1992)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $100 billion (1994 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Indonesian rupiahs (Rp) per US$1 - 2,116.9 (January 1994), 2,087.1 (1993), 2,029.9 (1992), 1,950.3 (1991), 1,842.8 (1990), 1,770.1 (1989)

Indonesia - Energy 1994
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 38 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 200 kWh (1990)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Indonesia - Communication 1994
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Indonesia - Military 1994
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: exchange rate conversion - $2.1 billion, 1.5% of GNP (FY93/94 est.)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Indonesia - Transportation 1994
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 444
Usable: 414
With permanentsurface runways: 122
With runways over 3659 m: 1
With runways 2440-3659 m: 11
With runways 1220-2439 m: 68

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: crude oil 2,505 km; petroleum products 456 km; natural gas 1,703 km (1989)



Waterways: 21,579 km total; Sumatra 5,471 km, Java and Madura 820 km, Kalimantan 10,460 km, Sulawesi 241 km, Irian Jaya 4,587 km

Merchant marine: 430 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,893,830 GRT/2,768,294 DWT, bulk 26, cargo 256, chemical tanker 7, container 11, liquefied gas 6, livestock carrier 1, oil tanker 83, passenger 4, passenger-cargo 13, roll-on/roll-off cargo 5, short-sea passenger 7, specialized tanker 7, vehicle carrier 4

Ports and terminals

Indonesia - Transnational issues 1994
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Disputes international: sovereignty over Timor Timur (East Timor Province) disputed with Portugal and not recognized by the UN; two islands in dispute with Malaysia

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade, but not a major player; government actively eradicating plantings and prosecuting traffickers


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