Statistical information Iraq 1994Iraq

Map of Iraq | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Iraq in the World
Iraq in the World

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Iraq - Introduction 1994
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Background: Iraq lies in the lower part of the Tigris-Euphrates valley, the heart of one of the four great ancient civilizations. The area was overrun by Arab, Mongol, and Turkish conquerors and became a British mandate following World War I. Independence came in 1932. Iraq's pro-Western stance ended in 1958 with the overthrow of the monarchy. Its subsequent turbulent history has witnessed the dictatorship of SADDAM Husayn, civil war with the Kurds, a bloody conflict with neighboring Iran, and, in 1990, an invasion of Kuwait, swiftly turned back by a Western coalition led by the US. Noncooperation with UN Security Council resolution obligations and the UN's inspection of Iraq's nuclear, chemical, biological, and long-range missile weapons programs remain major problems.

Iraq - Geography 1994
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Location: Middle East, between Iran and Saudi Arabia

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceMiddle East, Standard Time Zones of the World

Total area total: 437,072 km²
Land: 432,162 km²

Land boundaries: total 3,631 km, Iran 1,458 km, Jordan 181 km, Kuwait 242 km, Saudi Arabia 814 km, Syria 605 km, Turkey 331 km

Coastline: 58 km

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: not specified
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: mostly desert; mild to cool winters with dry, hot, cloudless summers; northernmost regions along Iranian and Turkish borders experience cold winters with occasionally heavy snows

Terrain: mostly broad plains; reedy marshes in southeast; mountains along borders with Iran and Turkey


Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, phosphates, sulfur
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 12%
Permanent crops: 1%
Meadows and pastures: 9%
Forest and woodland: 3%
Other: 75%

Irrigated land: 25,500 km² (1989 est)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: NA


Iraq - People 1994
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Population: 19,889,666 (July 1994 est.)
Growth rate: 3.73% (1994 est.)

Nationality: noun:Iraqi(s)

Ethnic groups: Arab 75-80%, Kurdish 15-20%, Turkoman, Assyrian or other 5%

Languages: Arabic, Kurdish (official in Kurdish regions), Assyrian, Armenian

Religions: Muslim 97% (Shi'a 60-65%, Sunni 32-37%), Christian or other 3%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 3.73% (1994 est.)

Birth rate: 44.11 births/1000 population (1994 est.)

Death rate: 7.26 deaths/1000 population (1994 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.4 migrant(s)/1000 population (1994 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: government water control projects drain inhabited marsh areas, drying up or diverting the streams and rivers that support a sizable population of Shi'a Muslims who have inhabited these areas for thousands of years; the destruction of the natural habitat also poses serious threats to the wildlife populations; damage to water treatment and sewage facilities during Gulf war; inadequate supplies of potable water; development of Tigris-Euphrates Rivers system contingent upon agreements with upstream riparians (Syria, Turkey; air and water pollution; soil degradation (salinization) and erosion; desertification

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 67.1 deaths/1000 live births (1994 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 65.74 years
Male: 64.87 years
Female: 66.66 years (1994 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.71 children born/woman (1994 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Total population: 60%
Male: 70%
Female: 49%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Iraq - Government 1994
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Iraq
Conventional short form:
local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Iraqiyah
local short form; Al Iraq

Government type: republic

Capital: Baghdad

Administrative divisions: 18 provinces (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah; Al Anbar, Al Basrah, Al Muthanna, Al Qadisiyah, An Najaf, Arbil, As Sulaymaniyah, At Ta'mim, Babil, Baghdad, Dahuk, Dhi Qar, Diyala, Karbala', Maysan, Ninawa, Salah ad Din, Wasit

Dependent areas

Independence: 3 October 1932 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 17 July (1968)

Constitution: 22 September 1968, effective 16 July 1970 (provisional Constitution; new constitution drafted in 1990 but not adopted

Legal system: based on Islamic law in special religious courts, civil law system elsewhere; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President SADDAM Husayn (since 16 July 1979); Vice President Taha Muhyi al-Din MARUF (since 21 April 1974); Vice President Taha Yasin RAMADAN (since 23 March 1991)
Head of government: Prime Minister Ahmad Husayn Khudayir al-SAMARRAI (since 5 September 1993); Deputy Prime Minister Tariq Mikhail AZIZ (since NA 1979)
Revolutionary Command Council: Chairman SADDAM Husayn, Vice Chairman Izzat IBRAHIM al-Duri

Legislative branch: Army and Republican Guard, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Force, Border Guard Force, Internal Security Forces
National Assembly Majlis alWatani: elections last held on 1 April 1989 (next to be held NA); results - Sunni Arabs 53%, Shi'a Arabs 30%, Kurds 15%, Christians 2% est.), seats - (250 total) number of seats by party NA
Note: in northern Iraq, a "Kurdish Assembly" was elected in May 1992 and calls for Kurdish self-determination within a federated Iraq; the assembly is not recognized by the Baghdad government

Judicial branch: Court of Cassation

Political parties and leaders


Diplomatic representation
From the us chief of mission: (vacant); note - operations have been temporarily suspended; a US Interests Section is located in Poland's embassy in Baghdad
From the us chancery: Iraqi Interests Section, 1801 P Street NW, Washington, DC 20,036
From the us telephone: [964] (1) 719-6,138 or 719-6,139, 718-1840, 719-3,791
From the us fax: (202) 462-5,066
From the us embassy: Masbah Quarter (opposite the Foreign Ministry Club), Baghdad
From the us mailing address: P. O. Box 2,447 Alwiyah, Baghdad

Flag descriptionflag of Iraq: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with three green five-pointed stars in a horizontal line centered in the white band; the phrase ALLAHU AKBAR (God is Great) in green Arabic script - Allahu to the right of the middle star and Akbar to the left of the middle star - was added in January 1991 during the Persian Gulf crisis; similar to the flag of Syria that has two stars but no script and the flag of Yemen that has a plain white band; also similar to the flag of Egypt that has a symbolic eagle centered in the white band

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Iraq - Economy 1994
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Economy overview: The Ba'thist regime engages in extensive central planning and management of industrial production and foreign trade while leaving some small-scale industry and services and most agriculture to private enterprise. The economy has been dominated by the oil sector, which has traditionally provided about 95% of foreign exchange earnings. In the 1980s, financial problems caused by massive expenditures in the eight-year war with Iran and damage to oil export facilities by Iran, led the government to implement austerity measures and to borrow heavily and later reschedule foreign debt payments. After the end of hostilities in 1988, oil exports gradually increased with the construction of new pipelines and restoration of damaged facilities. Agricultural development remained hampered by labor shortages, salinization, and dislocations caused by previous land reform and collectivization programs. The industrial sector, although accorded high priority by the government, also was under financial constraints. Iraq's seizure of Kuwait in August 1990, subsequent international economic embargoes, and military action by an international coalition beginning in January 1991 drastically changed the economic picture. Industrial and transportation facilities suffered severe damage and have been only partially restored. Oil exports remain at less than 10% of the previous level. Shortages of spare parts continue. Living standards deteriorated even further in 1993 and early 1994; consumer prices at least tripled in 1993. The UN-sponsored economic embargo has reduced exports and imports and has contributed to the sharp rise in prices. The government's policies of supporting large military and internal security forces and of allocating resources to key supporters of the regime have exacerbated shortages. In brief, per capita output in 1993-94 is far below the 1989-90 level, but no precise estimate is available.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: NA%

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounted for 11% of GNP and 30% of labor force before the Gulf war; principal products - wheat, barley, rice, vegetables, dates, other fruit, cotton, wool; livestock - cattle, sheep; not self-sufficient in food output

Industries: petroleum production and refining, chemicals, textiles, construction materials, food processing

Industrial production growth rate: NA%; manufacturing accounts for 10% of GNP (1989)

Labor force: 4.4 million (1989)
By occupation services: 48%
By occupation agriculture: 30%
By occupation industry: 22%
By occupation note: severe labor shortage; expatriate labor force was about 1,600,000 (July 1990); since then, it has declined substantially
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA%

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues:$NA

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $10.4 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
Commodities: crude oil and refined products, fertilizer, sulfur
Partners: US, Brazil, Turkey, Japan, Netherlands, Spain (1990)

Imports: $6.6 billion (c.i.f., 1990)
Commodities: manufactures, food
Partners: Germany, US, Turkey, France, UK (1990)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $45 billion (1989 est.), excluding debt of about $35 billion owed to Arab Gulf states

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Iraqi dinars (ID) per US$1 - 3.2 (fixed official rate since 1982; black-market rate (May 1994) US$1 = 370 Iraqi dinars

Iraq - Energy 1994
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 12.9 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 700 kWh (1992)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Iraq - Communication 1994
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Iraq - Military 1994
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $NA, NA% of GNP

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Iraq - Transportation 1994
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 118
Usable: 105
With permanentsurface runways: 76
With runways over 3659 m: 10
With runways 2440-3659 m: 51
With runways 1220-2439 m: 17

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: crude oil 4,350 km; petroleum products 725 km; natural gas 1,360 km



Waterways: 1,015 km; Shatt al Arab is usually navigable by maritime traffic for about 130 km; channel has been dredged to 3 meters and is in use; Tigris and Euphrates Rivers have navigable sections for shallow-draft watercraft; Shatt al Basrah canal was navigable by shallow-draft craft before closing in 1991 because of the Persian Gulf war

Merchant marine: 37 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 805,205 GRT/1,444,810 DWT, cargo 15, oil tanker 16, passenger 1, passenger-cargo 1, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 3
Note: none of the Iraqi flag merchant fleet was trading internationally as of 1 January 1993

Ports and terminals

Iraq - Transnational issues 1994
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Disputes international: Iran and Iraq restored diplomatic relations in 1990 but are still trying to work out written agreements settling outstanding disputes from their eight-year war concerning border demarcation, prisoners-of-war, and freedom of navigation and sovereignty over the Shatt al Arab waterway; in April 1991 official Iraqi acceptance of UN Security Council Resolution 687, which demands that Iraq accept the inviolability of the boundary set forth in its 1963 agreement with Kuwait, ending earlier claims to Bubiyan and Warbah islands or to all of Kuwait; the 20 May 1993 final report of the UN Iraq/Kuwait Boundary Demarcation Commission was welcomed by the Security Council in Resolution 833 of 27 May 1993, which also reaffirmed that the decisions of the commission on the boundary were final, bringing to a completion the official demarcation of the Iraq-Kuwait boundary; Iraqi officials still refuse to unconditionally recognize Kuwaiti sovereignty or the inviolability of the UN demarcated border; periodic disputes with upstream riparian Syria over Euphrates water rights; potential dispute over water development plans by Turkey for the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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