Statistical information Japan 1994Japan

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Japan in the World
Japan in the World



Japan - Introduction 1994
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Background: While retaining its time-honored culture Japan rapidly absorbed Western technology during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. After its devastating defeat in World War II Japan recovered to become the second most powerful economy in the world and a staunch ally of the US. While the emperor retains his throne as a symbol of national unity actual power rests in networks of powerful politicians bureaucrats and business executives.


Japan - Geography 1994
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Location: Eastern Asia, off the southeast coast of Russia and east of the Korean peninsula

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceAsia, Standard Time Zones of the World

Area
Total area total: 377,835 km²
Land: 374,744 km²

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 29,751 km

Maritime claims
Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm; 3 nm in the international straits - La Perouse or Soya, Tsugaru, Osumi, and Eastern and Western Channels of the Korea or Tsushima Strait

Climate: varies from tropical in south to cool temperate in north

Terrain: mostly rugged and mountainous

Elevation

Natural resources: negligible mineral resources, fish
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 13%
Permanent crops: 1%
Meadows and pastures: 1%
Forest and woodland: 67%
Other: 18%

Irrigated land: 28,680 km² (1989)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: many dormant and some active volcanoes; about 1,500 seismic occurrences (mostly tremors) every year; subject to tsunamis

Geography
Note: strategic location in northeast Asia


Japan - People 1994
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Population: 125,106,937 (July 1994 est.)
Growth rate: 0.32% (1994 est.)

Nationality: noun:Japanese (singular and plural)

Ethnic groups: Japanese 99.4%, other 0.6% (mostly Korean)

Languages: Japanese

Religions: observe both Shinto and Buddhist 84%, other 16% (including 0.7% Christian)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 0.32% (1994 est.)

Birth rate: 10.49 births/1000 population (1994 est.)

Death rate: 7.31 deaths/1000 population (1994 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1994 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: air pollution from power plant emissions results in acid rain; acidification of lakes and reservoirs degrading water quality and threatening aquatic life

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 4.3 deaths/1000 live births (1994 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 79.31 years
Male: 76.47 years
Female: 82.28 years (1994 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.55 children born/woman (1994 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1970 est.)
Total population: 99%
Male: NA%
Female: NA%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Japan - Government 1994
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Country name
Conventional long form:
none
conventional short form


Government type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Tokyo

Administrative divisions: 47 prefectures; Aichi, Akita, Aomori, Chiba, Ehime, Fukui, Fukuoka, Fukushima, Gifu, Gumma, Hiroshima, Hokkaido, Hyogo, Ibaraki, Ishikawa, Iwate, Kagawa, Kagoshima, Kanagawa, Kochi, Kumamoto, Kyoto, Mie, Miyagi, Miyazaki, Nagano, Nagasaki, Nara, Niigata, Oita, Okayama, Okinawa, Osaka, Saga, Saitama, Shiga, Shimane, Shizuoka, Tochigi, Tokushima, Tokyo, Tottori, Toyama, Wakayama, Yamagata, Yamaguchi, Yamanashi

Dependent areas

Independence: 660 BC (traditional founding by Emperor Jimmu)

National holiday: Birthday of the Emperor, 23 December (1933)

Constitution: 3 May 1947

Legal system: modeled after European civil law system with English-American influence; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: Emperor AKIHITO (since 7 January 1989)
Head of government: Prime Minister Tsutomu HATA (since 25 April 1994); Deputy Prime Minister (vacant)

Legislative branch: Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (Army), Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (Navy), Japan Air Self-Defense Force (Air Force), Maritime Safety Agency (Coast Guard)
House of Councillors Sangiin: elections last held on 26 July 1992 (next to be held NA July 1995); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (252 total) LDP 95, SDPJ 68, Shin Ryoku fu-Kai 37, CGP 24, JCP 11, other 17
House of Representatives Shugiin: elections last held on 18 July 1993 (next to be held by NA); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (511 total) LDP 206, SDPJ 74, Shinseito 62, CGP 52, JNP 37, DSP 19, JCP 15, Sakigake 15, others 19, independents 10, vacant 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer), Australia Group, APEC, AsDB, BIS, CCC, COCOM, CP, CSCE (observer), EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, G-2, G-5, G-7, G-8, G-10, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, MTCR, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNRWA, UNTAC, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Walter F. MONDALE
From the us chancery: 2,520 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,008
From the us telephone: [81] (3) 3,224-5,000
From the us fax: (202) 328-2,187
From the us consulates general: Naha (Okinawa), Osaka-Kobe, Sapporo
From the us consulates: Fukuoka
From the us embassy: 10-5, Akasaka 1-chome, Minato-ku (107), Tokyo
From the us mailing address: Unit 45,004, Box 258, Tokyo; APO AP 96,337-0001
From the us FAX: [81] (3) 3,505-1862

Flag descriptionflag of Japan: white with a large red disk (representing the sun without rays) in the center

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Japan - Economy 1994
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Economy overview: Government-industry cooperation, a strong work ethic, mastery of high technology, and a comparatively small defense allocation have helped Japan advance with extraordinary rapidity to the rank of second most powerful economy in the world. Industry, the most important sector of the economy, is heavily dependent on imported raw materials and fuels. Self-sufficient in rice, Japan must import about 50% of its requirements of other grain and fodder crops. Japan maintains one of the world's largest fishing fleets and accounts for nearly 15% of the global catch. Overall economic growth has been spectacular:a 10% average in the 1960s, a 5% average in the 1970s and 1980s. Economic growth came to a halt in 1992-93 largely because of contractionary domestic policies intended to wring speculative excesses from the stock and real estate markets. At the same time, the stronger yen and slower global growth are containing export growth. Unemployment and inflation remain remarkably low in comparison with the other industrialized nations. Japan continues to run a huge trade surplus - $120 billion in 1993, up more than 10% from the year earlier - which supports extensive investment in foreign assets. The new prime minister HATA in early 1994 reiterated previous governments' vows of administrative and economic reform, including reduction in the trade surplus, but his weak coalition government faces strong resistance from traditional interest groups. The crowding of the habitable land area and the aging of the population are two major long-run problems.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 0% (1993)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for only 2% of GDP; highly subsidized and protected sector, with crop yields among highest in world; principal crops - rice, sugar beets, vegetables, fruit; animal products include pork, poultry, dairy and eggs; about 50% self-sufficient in food production; shortages of wheat, corn, soybeans; world's largest fish catch of 10 million metric tons in 1991

Industries: steel and non-ferrous metallurgy, heavy electrical equipment, construction and mining equipment, motor vehicles and parts, electronic and telecommunication equipment and components, machine tools and automated production systems, locomotives and railroad rolling stock, shipbuilding, chemicals, textiles, food processing

Industrial production growth rate: -4% (1993; accounts for 30% of GDP

Labor force: 63.33 million
By occupation trade and services: 54%
By occupation and construction: 33%
By occupation agriculture forestry and fishing: 7%
By occupation government: 3% (1988)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 2.5% (1993)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues:$490 billion

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $360.9 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
Commodities: manufactures 97% (including machinery 46%, motor vehicles 20%, consumer electronics 10%)
Partners: Southeast Asia 33%, US 29%, Western Europe 18%, China 5%

Imports: $240.7 billion (c.i.f., 1993)
Commodities: manufactures 52%, fossil fuels 20%, foodstuffs and raw materials 28%
Partners: Southeast Asia 25%, US 23%, Western Europe 15%, China 9%

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $NA

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: yen (Y) per US$1 - 111.51 (January 1994), 111.20 (1993), 126.65 (1992), 134.71 (1991), 144.79 (1990), 137.96 (1989)


Japan - Energy 1994
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 835 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 6,700 kWh (1992)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Japan - Communication 1994
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Japan - Military 1994
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: exchange rate conversion - $45.5 billion, less than 1% of GDP (FY94/95 est.)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Japan - Transportation 1994
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 167
Usable: 165
With permanentsurface runways: 137
With runways over 3659 m: 2
With runways 2440-3659 m: 34
With runways 1220-2439 m: 52

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: crude oil 84 km; petroleum products 322 km; natural gas 1,800 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: about 1,770 km; seagoing craft ply all coastal inland seas

Merchant marine: 926 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 20,383,101 GRT31,007,515 DWT, bulk 225, cargo 76, chemical tanker 9, combination ore/oil 9, container 44, liquefied gas 42, multi-function large load carrier 1, oil tanker 265, passenger 10, passenger cargo 3, refrigerated cargo 66, roll-on/roll-off cargo 44, short-sea passenger 36, specialized tanker 2, vehicle carrier 94
Note: Japan also owns a large flag of convenience fleet, including up to 38% of the total number of ships under the Panamanian flag

Ports and terminals


Japan - Transnational issues 1994
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Disputes international: islands of Etorofu, Kunashiri, Shikotau, and the Habomai group occupied by the Soviet Union in 1945, now administered by Russia, claimed by Japan; Liancourt Rocks disputed with South Korea; Senkaku-shoto (Senkaku Islands) claimed by China and Taiwan

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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