Statistical information Kazakhstan 1994Kazakhstan

Map of Kazakhstan | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Kazakhstan in the World
Kazakhstan in the World


Kazakhstan - Introduction 1994
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Background: As a republic within the USSR (1920-91), Kazakhstan suffered greatly from Stalinist purges, from environmental damage, and saw the ethnic Russian portion of its population rise to 37% while other non-Kazakhs made up almost 20%. Current issues include the pace of market reform and privatization; fair and free elections and democratic reform; ethnic differences between Russians and Kazakhs; environmental problems; and how to convert the country's abundant energy resources into a better standard of living.

Kazakhstan - Geography 1994
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Location: Central Asia, between Russia and Uzbekistan, bordering on the Caspian Sea and the Aral Sea

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceAsia, Commonwealth of Independent States - Central Asian States, Standard Time Zones of the World

Total area total: 2,717,300 km²
Land: 2,669,800 km²

Land boundaries: total 12,012 km, China 1,533 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,051 km, Russia 6,846 km, Turkmenistan 379 km, Uzbekistan 2,203 km

Coastline: 0 km
Note: Kazakhstan borders the Aral Sea (1,015 km) and the Caspian Sea (1,894 km)

Maritime claims: landlocked, but borders with Russia, Azerbaijan, and Turkmenistan in the Caspian Sea are under negotiation at present

Climate: continental, cold winters and hot summers, arid and semiarid

Terrain: extends from the Volga to the Altai Mountains and from the plains in western Siberia to oasis and desert in Central Asia


Natural resources: major deposits of petroleum, coal, iron ore, manganese, chrome ore, nickel, cobalt, copper, molybdenum, lead, zinc, bauxite, gold, uranium
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 15%
Permanent crops: NEGL %
Meadows and pastures: 57%
Forest and woodland: 4%
Other: 24%

Irrigated land: 23,080 km² (1990)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: NA

Note: landlocked

Kazakhstan - People 1994
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Population: 17,267,554 (July 1994 est.)
Growth rate: 0.64% (1994 est.)

Nationality: noun:Kazakhstani(s)

Ethnic groups: Kazakh (Qazaq) 41.9%, Russian 37%, Ukrainian 5.2%, German 4.7%, Uzbek 2.1%, Tatar 2%, other 7.1% (1991 official data)

Languages: Kazakh (Qazaqz) official language spoken by over 40% of population, Russian (language of interethnic communication) spoken by two-thirds of population and used in everyday business

Religions: Muslim 47%, Russian Orthodox 44%, Protestant 2%, other 7%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 0.64% (1994 est.)

Birth rate: 19.4 births/1000 population (1994 est.)

Death rate: 7.93 deaths/1000 population (1994 est.)

Net migration rate: -5.09 migrant(s)/1000 population (1994 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: radioactive or toxic chemical sites associated with its former defense industries and test ranges are found throughout the country and pose health risks for humans and animals; industrial pollution is severe in some cities; because the two main rivers which flowed into the Aral Sea have been diverted for irrigation, it is drying up and leaving behind a harmful layer of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then picked up by the wind and blown into noxious dust storms; pollution in the Caspian Sea; soil pollution from overuse of agricultural chemicals and salinization from faulty irrigation practices
International agreements: signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 40.9 deaths/1000 live births (1994 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 68.04 years
Male: 63.39 years
Female: 72.93 years (1994 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.44 children born/woman (1994 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 9-49 can read and write (1970)
Total population: 100%
Male: 100%
Female: 100%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Kazakhstan - Government 1994
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Kazakhstan
Conventional short form:
local long form: Kazakhstan Respublikasy
local short form; none

Former: Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic

Government type: republic

Capital: Almaty

Administrative divisions: 19 oblystar (singular - oblys) and 1 city (qalalar, singular - qala)*; Almaty*, Almaty Oblysy, Aqmola Oblysy, Aqtobe Oblysy, Atyrau Oblysy, Batys Qazaqstan Oblysy (Oral), Kokshetau Oblysy, Mangghystau Oblysy, Ongtustik Qazaqstan Oblysy (Shymkent), Qaraghandy Oblysy, Qostanay Oblysy, Qyzylorda Oblysy, Pavlodar Oblysy, Semey Oblysy, Shyghys Qazaqstan Oblysy (Oskemen; formerly Ust'-Kamenogorsk), Soltustik Qazaqstan Oblysy (Petropavl), Taldyqorghan Oblysy, Torghay Oblysy, Zhambyl Oblysy, Zhezqazghan Oblysy
Note: names in parentheses are administrative centers when name differs from oblys name

Dependent areas

Independence: 16 December 1991 (from the Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 16 December (1991)

Constitution: adopted 28 January 1993

Legal system: based on civil law system

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Nursultan A. NAZARBAYEV (since NA April 1990); Vice President Yerik ASANBAYEV (since 1 December 1991); election last held 1 December 1991 (next to be held NA 1995); percent of vote by party NA; Nursultan A. NAZARBAYEV ran unopposed
Head of government: Prime Minister Sergey TERESHCHENKO (since 14 October 1991); First Deputy Prime Minister Arkezhan KAZHEGELDIN (since NA November 1993)

Legislative branch: Army, National Guard, Security Forces (internal and border troops)
Supreme Council: elections last held 7 March 1994 (next to be held NA 1999); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (177 total) Union Peoples' Unity of Kazakhstan 33, Federation of Trade Unions of the Republic of Kazakhstan 11, People's Congress of Kazakhstan Party 9, Socialist Party of Kazakhstan 8, Peasant Union of the Republic Kazakhstan 4, Social Movement "LAD" 4, Organization of Veterans 1, Union of Youth of Kazakhstan 1, Democratic Committee for Human Rights 1, Association of Lawyers of Kazakhstan 1, International Public Committee "Aral-Asia-Kazakhstan" 1, Congress of Entrepreneurs of Kazakhstan 1, Deputies of the 12th Supreme Soviet 40, independents 62

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: CCC, CIS, CSCE, EBRD, ECO, ESCAP, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOD, NACC, OIC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador William H. COURTNEY
From the us chancery: 3,421 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20,007
From the us telephone: (7) (3,272) 63-17-70, 63-24-26, 63-28-80, 63-34-05
From the us fax: (7) (3,272) 63-38-83
From the us embassy: 99/97 Furmanova Street, Almaty, Republic of Kazakhstan 480,012
From the us mailing address: American Embassy Almaty, c/o Department of State, Washington, DC, 20,521-7,030

Flag descriptionflag of Kazakhstan: sky blue background representing the endless sky and a gold sun with 32 rays soaring above a golden steppe eagle in the center; on the hoist side is a "national ornamentation" in yellow

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Kazakhstan - Economy 1994
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Economy overview: Kazakhstan, the second largest of the former Soviet states in territory, possesses vast oil, coal, rare metals, and agricultural resources. While the economy is gradually making the transition from a Soviet command system to a market system, strong elements of state control persist including government ownership of most economic assets and a continued system of mandatory state procurement for the key products such as grain and energy; likewise, agriculture remains largely collectivized. On the other hand, new businesses are forming rapidly, the economy is opening to foreign investment, and 12% of state-owned commercial enterprises have been privatized. In 1993, a three-year industrial privatization program was launched; an independent currency was successfully introduced; and two large joint ventures were established with western oil companies. These far-reaching structural transformations have resulted in a cumulative decline in national income of more than 30% since 1990. Loose monetary policies have kept the inflation rate high, averaging 28% per month for 1993 and accelerating at the end with the disruption caused by a new currency. Since the introduction of its independent currency in November 1993, the government has renewed its commitment to fiscal discipline and accelerating economic reform. However, growing economic hardship and rising ethnic tensions between Kazakhs and Russians over the division of economic assets will likely lead to strong pressure to backtrack.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: -13% (1993 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for almost 40% of net material product; employs about 26% of the labor force; grain, mostly spring wheat; meat, cotton, wool

Industries: extractive industries (oil, coal, iron ore, manganese, chromite, lead, zinc, copper, titanium, bauxite, gold, silver, phosphates, sulfur), iron and steel, nonferrous metal, tractors and other agricultural machinery, electric motors, construction materials

Industrial production growth rate: -16% (1993)

Labor force: 7.356 million
By occupation industry and construction: 31%
By occupation agriculture and forestry: 26%
By occupation other: 43% (1992)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 0.6% includes only officially registered unemployed; also large numbers of underemployed workers

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues:$NA

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $1.3 billion to outside the FSU countries (1993)
Commodities: oil, ferrous and nonferrous metals, chemicals, grain, wool, meat (1992)
Partners: Russia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan

Imports: $358.3 million from outside the FSU countries (1993)
Commodities: machinery and parts, industrial materials, oil and gas (1992)
Partners: Russia and other former Soviet republics, China

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $1.5 billion debt to Russia

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: NA

Kazakhstan - Energy 1994
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 81.3 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 4,739 kWh (1992)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Kazakhstan - Communication 1994
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Kazakhstan - Military 1994
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: 69,326 million rubles, NA% of GDP (forecast for 1993; note - conversion of the military budget into US dollars using the current exchange rate could produce misleading results

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Kazakhstan - Transportation 1994
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 365
Usable: 152
With permanentsurface runways: 49
With runways over 3659 m: 8
With runways 2440-3659 m: 38
With runways 1220-2439 m: 71

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: crude oil 2,850 km; refined products 1,500 km; natural gas 3,480 km (1992)



Waterways: Syrdariya River, Ertis River

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Kazakhstan - Transnational issues 1994
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Disputes international: Russia may dispute current de facto maritime border to midpoint of Caspian Sea from shore

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy; mostly for CIS consumption; limited government eradication program; used as transshipment point for illicit drugs to Western Europe and North America from Central and Southwest Asia


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