Statistical information Kenya 1994Kenya

Map of Kenya | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Kenya in the World
Kenya in the World


Kenya - Introduction 1994
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Background: Revered president and liberation struggle icon Jomo KENYATTA led Kenya from independence until his death in 1978 when current President Daniel Toroitich arap MOI took power in a constitutional succession. The country was a de facto one-party state from 1969 until 1982 when the ruling Kenya African National Union (KANU) made itself the sole legal party in Kenya. MOI acceded to internal and external pressure for political liberalization in late 1991. The ethnically fractured opposition failed to dislodge KANU from power in elections in 1992 which were marred by violence and fraud but are viewed as having generally reflected the will of the Kenyan people.

Kenya - Geography 1994
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Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the northwestern India Ocean between Tanzania and Somalia

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceAfrica, Standard Time Zones of the World

Total area total: 582,650 km²
Land: 569,250 km²

Land boundaries: total 3,446 km, Ethiopia 830 km, Somalia 682 km, Sudan 232 km, Tanzania 769 km, Uganda 933 km

Coastline: 536 km

Maritime claims
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: varies from tropical along coast to arid in interior

Terrain: low plains rise to central highlands bisected by Great Rift Valley; fertile plateau in west


Natural resources: gold, limestone, soda ash, salt barytes, rubies, fluorspar, garnets, wildlife
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 3%
Permanent crops: 1%
Meadows and pastures: 7%
Forest and woodland: 4%
Other: 85%

Irrigated land: 520 km² (1989)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: NA

Note: the Kenyan Highlands comprise one of the most successful agricultural production regions in Africa; glaciers on Mt. Kenya; unique physiography supports abundant and varied wildlife of scientific and economic value

Kenya - People 1994
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Population: 28,240,658 (July 1994 est.)
Growth rate: 3.07% (1994 est.)

Nationality: noun:Kenyan(s)

Ethnic groups: Kikuyu 22%, Luhya 14%, Luo 13%, Kalenjin 12%, Kamba 11%, Kisii 6%, Meru 6%, Asian, European, and Arab 1%, other 15%

Languages: English (official), Swahili (official), numerous indigenous languages

Religions: Roman Catholic 28%, Protestant (including Anglican) 26%, indigenous beliefs 18%, Muslim 6%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 3.07% (1994 est.)

Birth rate: 42.44 births/1000 population (1994 est.)

Death rate: 11.74 deaths/1000 population (1994 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1994 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: water pollution from urban and industrial wastes; degradation of water quality from increased use of pesticides and fertilizers; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; poaching

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 74.1 deaths/1000 live births (1994 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 53.23 years
Male: 51.48 years
Female: 55.03 years (1994 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.91 children born/woman (1994 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Total population: 69%
Male: 80%
Female: 58%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Kenya - Government 1994
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Kenya
Conventional short form: former:British East Africa

Government type: republic

Capital: Nairobi

Administrative divisions: 8 provinces; Central, Coast, Eastern, Nairobi, North Eastern, Nyanza, Rift Valley, Western

Dependent areas

Independence: 12 December 1963 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 12 December (1963)

Constitution: 12 December 1963, amended as a republic 1964; reissued with amendments 1979, 1983, 1986, 1988, 1991, and 1992

Legal system: based on English common law, tribal law, and Islamic law; judicial review in High Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations; constitutional amendment of 1982 making Kenya a de jure one-party state repealed in 1991

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state and head of government:President Daniel Teroitich arap MOI (since 14 October 1978; Vice President George SAITOTI (since 10 May 1989; election last held on 29 December 1992 (next to be held NA 1997; results - President Daniel T. arap MOI was reelected with 37% of the vote; Kenneth Matiba (FORD-ASILI) 26%; Mwai Kibaki (SP) 19%, Oginga Odinga (FORD-Kenya) 17%

Legislative branch: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary General Service Unit of the Police
National Assembly Bunge: elections last held on 29 December 1992; results - (188 total) KANU 100, FORD-Kenya 31, FORD-Asili 31, DP 23, smaller parties 3; president nominates 12 additional members
Note: first multiparty election since repeal of one-party state law in 1991

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal, High Court

Political parties and leaders


Diplomatic representation
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Aurelia BRAZEAL
From the us chancery: 2,249 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20,008
From the us telephone: [254] (2) 334,141
From the us consulates general: Los Angeles and New York
From the us embassy: corner of Moi Avenue and Haile Selassie Avenue, Nairobi
From the us mailing address: P. O. Box 30,137, Unit 64,100, Nairobi or APO AE 9,831
From the us FAX: [254] (2) 340,838

Flag descriptionflag of Kenya: three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green; the red band is edged in white; a large warrior's shield covering crossed spears is superimposed at the center

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Kenya - Economy 1994
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Economy overview: Kenya's 3.1% annual population growth rate - one of the highest in the world - has led to a decline in per capita output in each of the last three years, 1991-93. Undependable weather conditions and a shortage of arable land: hamper long-term growth in agriculture, the leading economic sector. In industry and services, Nairobi's reluctance to embrace IMF-supported reforms has held back investment. Ethnic clashes and continued suspension of quick disbursing aid by the international donors kept growth at only 0.5% in 1993.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 0.5% (1993 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: most important sector, accounting for 25% of GDP and 65% of exports; cash crops - coffee, tea, sisal, pineapple; food products - corn, wheat, sugarcane, fruit, vegetables, dairy products, beef, pork, poultry, eggs; food output not keeping pace with population growth, and crop production has been extended into marginal land

Industries: small-scale consumer goods (plastic, furniture, batteries, textiles, soap, cigarettes, flour), agricultural processing, oil refining, cement, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 5.4% (1989 est.), accounts for 13% of GDP

Labor force: 9.2 million (includes unemployed; the total employed is 1,370,000 (14.8% of the labor force)
By occupation agriculture: 75-80% (1993est.)
By occupation non-agriculture: 20-25% (1993est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 23.8% urban (1993 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues:$2.4 billion

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $1 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
Commodities: tea 25%, coffee 18%, petroleum products 11% (1990)
Partners: EC 47%, Africa 23%, Asia 11%, US 4%, Middle East 3% (1991)

Imports: $1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
Commodities: machinery and transportation equipment 29%, petroleum and petroleum products 15%, iron and steel 7%, raw materials, food and consumer goods (1989)
Partners: EC 46%, Asia 23%, Middle East 20%, US 5% (1991)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $7 billion (1992 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Kenyan shillings (KSh) per US$1 - 68.413 (December 1993), 32.217 (1992), 27.508 (1991), 22.915 (1990), 20.572 (1989)

Kenya - Energy 1994
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 2.54 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 100 kWh (1990)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Kenya - Communication 1994
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Kenya - Military 1994
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: exchange rate conversion - $294 million, 4.9% of GDP (FY88/89 est.)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Kenya - Transportation 1994
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 248
Usable: 213
With permanentsurface runways: 28
With runways over 3659 m: 2
With runways 2440-3659 m: 3
With runways 1220-2439 m: 44

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: petroleum products 483 km



Waterways: part of Lake Victoria system is within boundaries of Kenya

Merchant marine: 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,883 GRT/6,255 DWT, barge carrier 1, oil tanker ship 1

Ports and terminals

Kenya - Transnational issues 1994
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Disputes international: administrative boundary with Sudan does not coincide with international boundary; possible claim by Somalia based on unification of ethnic Somalis

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: widespread wild, small-plot cultivation of marijuana and gat; most locally consumed; transit country for Southwest Asian heroin moving to West Africa and onward to Europe and North America; Indian methaqualone also transits on way to South Africa

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