Statistical information Kyrgyzstan 1994Kyrgyzstan

Map of Kyrgyzstan | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Kyrgyzstan in the World
Kyrgyzstan in the World


Kyrgyzstan - Introduction 1994
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Background: A country of incredible natural beauty and proud nomadic traditions, Kyrgyzstan became part of the Russian empire in 1864. In the Czarist and Soviet periods, Russian managers and technicians were sent to Kyrgyzstan and have recently made up more than one-fifth of the population. Many Russians have been returning home since Kyrgyzstan gained its independence in 1991 when the USSR collapsed. Privatization of state-owned enterprises, expansion of democracy and political freedoms, and inter-ethnic relations are current issues.

Kyrgyzstan - Geography 1994
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Location: Central Asia, between China and Kazakhstan

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceAsia, Commonwealth of Independent States - Central Asian States, Standard Time Zones of the World

Total area total: 198,500 km²
Land: 191,300 km²

Land boundaries: total 3,878 km, China 858 km, Kazakhstan 1,051 km, Tajikistan 870 km, Uzbekistan 1,099 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

Climate: dry continental to polar in high Tien Shan; subtropical in southwest (Fergana Valley; temperate in northern foothill zone

Terrain: peaks of Tien Shan rise to 7,000 meters, and associated valleys and basins encompass entire nation


Natural resources: small amounts of coal abundant hydroelectric potential; significant deposits of gold and rare earth metals; locally exploitable coal, oil and natural gas; other deposits of nepheline, mercury, bismuth, lead, and zinc, natural gas, oil, nepheline, rare earth metals, mercury, bismuth, gold, lead, zinc, hydroelectric power
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 7%
Permanent crops: NEGL%
Meadows and pastures: 42%
Forest and woodland: 0%
Other: 51%

Irrigated land: 10,320 km² (1990)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: NA

Note: landlocked

Kyrgyzstan - People 1994
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Population: 4,698,108 (July 1994 est.)
Growth rate: 1.53% (1994 est.)

Nationality: noun:Kyrgyz(s)

Ethnic groups: Kirghiz 52.4%, Russian 21.5%, Uzbek 12.9%, Ukrainian 2.5%, German 2.4%, other 8.3%

Languages: Kirghiz (Kyrgyz) - official language, Russian widely used

Religions: Muslim 70%, Russian Orthodox NA%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.53% (1994 est.)

Birth rate: 26.33 births/1000 population (1994 est.)

Death rate: 7.36 deaths/1000 population (1994 est.)

Net migration rate: -3.64 migrant(s)/1000 population (1994 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: water pollution; many people get their water directly from contaminated streams and wells and as a result, water-borne diseases are prevalent; increasing soil salinity from faulty irrigation practices
International agreements: NA

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 46.8 deaths/1000 live births (1994 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 67.92 years
Male: 63.69 years
Female: 72.35 years (1994 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.35 children born/woman (1994 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 9-49 can read and write (1970)
Total population: 100%
Male: 100%
Female: 100%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Kyrgyzstan - Government 1994
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Country name
Conventional long form: Kyrgyz Republic
Conventional short form:
local long form: Kyrgyz Respublikasy
local short form; none

Former: Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic

Government type: republic

Capital: Bishkek

Administrative divisions: 6 oblasttar (singular - oblast); Chuy Oblasty, Jalal-Abad Oblasty, Naryn Oblasty, Osh Oblasty, Talas Oblasty, Ysyk-Kol Oblasty
Note: the administrative center for Chuy Oblasty is Bishkek; the administrative center for Ysyk-Kol Oblasty may be Ksyk-Kol or Karakol; all other oblasttar have administrative centers of the same name as the oblast

Dependent areas

Independence: 31 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: National Day, 2 December; Independence Day, 31 August (1991)

Constitution: adopted 5 May 1993

Legal system: based on civil law system

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Askar AKAYEV (since 28 October 1990); election last held 12 October 1991 (next to be held NA 1996); results - Askar AKAYEV won in uncontested election with 95% of vote and with 90% of electorate voting; note - president elected by Supreme Soviet 28 October 1990, then by popular vote 12 October 1991; note - AKAYEV won 96% of the vote in a referendum on his status as president on 30 January 1993
Head of government: Prime Minister Apas DZHUMAGULOV (since NA December 1993); First Deputy Prime Minister Almambet MATURBRAIMOV (since NA)

Legislative branch: National Guard, Security Forces (internal and border troops), Civil Defense
Zhogorku Keneshom: elections last held 25 February 1990 for the Supreme Soviet (next to be held no later than NA November 1994 for the Zhogorku Keneshom); results - Communists 90%; seats - (350 total) Communists 310

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders


Diplomatic representation
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Edward HURWITZ
From the us chancery: (temporary) Suite 705, 1511 K Street NW, Washington, DC 20,005
From the us telephone: 7-3,312 22-29-20, 22-26-93, 22-29-89
From the us fax: (202) 347-3,718
From the us embassy: Erkindik Prospekt #66, Bishkek 720,002
From the us mailing address: use embassy street address
From the us FAX: 7-3,312 22-35-51

Flag descriptionflag of Kyrgyzstan: red field with a yellow sun in the center having 40 rays representing the 40 Krygyz tribes; on the obverse side the rays run counterclockwise, on the reverse, clockwise; in the center of the sun is a red ring crossed by two sets of three lines, a stylized representation of the roof of the traditional Kyrgyz yurt

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Kyrgyzstan - Economy 1994
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Economy overview: Kyrgyzstan is one of the smallest and poorest states of the former Soviet Union. Its economy is heavily agricultural, producing cotton and tobacco on irrigated land in the south, grain in the foothills of the north, and sheep and goats on mountain pastures. Its small and obsolescent industrial sector, concentrated around Bishkek, is heavily dependent on Russia and other CIS countries for customers and for inputs, including most of its fuel. Since 1990, the economy has contracted by almost 40%. Kyrgyzstan's inflation was high in 1993, about 23% per month, but rates were declining at the end of the year. Kyrgyzstan introduced its national currency, the som, in May 1993, it has privatized 28% of its former state assets, and plans call for a massive voucher privatization in 1994. Although Kyrgyzstan will receive relatively large flows of foreign aid, ongoing economic restructuring will continue to be painful with an anticipated increase in unemployment as uneconomic enterprises close. President AKAYEV will be under strong political pressure to backtrack on some reform measures.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: -13.4% (1993 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: wool, tobacco, cotton, livestock (sheep, goats, cattle), vegetables, meat, grapes, fruits and berries, eggs, milk, potatoes

Industries: small machinery, textiles, food-processing industries, cement, shoes, sawn logs, refrigerators, furniture, electric motors, gold, and rare earth metals

Industrial production growth rate: -27% (1993 est.)

Labor force: 1.836 million
By occupation agriculture and forestry: 38%
By occupation industry and construction: 21%
By occupation other: 41% (1990)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 0.2% includes officially registered unemployed; also large numbers of unregistered unemployed and underemployed workers

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues:$NA

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $100.4 million to countries outside the FSU (1993 est.)
Commodities: wool, chemicals, cotton, ferrous and nonferrous metals, shoes, machinery, tobacco
Partners: Russia 70%, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and others

Imports: $105.8 million from countries outside the FSU (1993 est.)
Commodities: grain, lumber, industrial products, ferrous metals, fuel, machinery, textiles, footwear
Partners: other CIS republics

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $NA

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: NA

Kyrgyzstan - Energy 1994
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 11.8 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 2,551 kWh (1992)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Kyrgyzstan - Communication 1994
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Kyrgyzstan - Military 1994
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $NA, NA% of GDP

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Kyrgyzstan - Transportation 1994
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 52
Usable: 27
With permanentsurface runways: 12
With runways over 3659 m: 1
With runways 2440-3659 m: 4
With runways 10602439 m: 13
Note: a C-130 can land on a 1,060-m airstrip

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: natural gas 200 km




Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Kyrgyzstan - Transnational issues 1994
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Disputes international: territorial dispute with Tajikistan on southwestern boundary in Isfara Valley area

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: illicit cultivator of cannabis and opium poppy; mostly for CIS consumption; limited government eradication program; used as transshipment point for illicit drugs to Western Europe and North America from Central and Southwest Asia


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