Statistical information Latvia 1994Latvia

Map of Latvia | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Latvia in the World
Latvia in the World

Crystal Travel

Latvia - Introduction 1994
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Background: Along with most of the other small nations of Europe, Latvia shares a history of invasion by a succession of expansionist nations, e.g., Sweden, Poland, Germany, and Russia. After a brief period of independence between the two World Wars, Latvia was annexed by the USSR in 1940 under the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact. The USSR recaptured Latvia from its German occupiers in 1944. Latvia reestablished its independence in August 1991, a few months prior to the collapse of the Soviet Union; the last Russian troops left in 1994.

Latvia - Geography 1994
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Location: Eastern Europe, bordering on the Baltic Sea, between Sweden and Russia

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceArctic Region, Asia, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World

Total area total: 64,100 km²
Land: 64,100 km²

Land boundaries: total 1,078 km, Belarus 141 km, Estonia 267 km, Lithuania 453 km, Russia 217 km

Coastline: 531 km

Maritime claims
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: maritime; wet, moderate winters

Terrain: low plain


Natural resources: minimal; amber, peat, limestone, dolomite
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 27%
Permanent crops: 0%
Meadows and pastures: 13%
Forest and woodland: 39%
Other: 21%

Irrigated land: 160 km² (1990)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: NA


Latvia - People 1994
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Population: 2,749,211 (July 1994 est.)
Growth rate: 0.5% (1994 est.)

Nationality: noun:Latvian(s)

Ethnic groups: Latvian 51.8%, Russian 33.8%, Byelorussian 4.5%, Ukrainian 3.4%, Polish 2.3%, other 4.2%

Languages: Lettish (official), Lithuanian, Russian, other

Religions: Lutheran, Roman Catholic, Russian Orthodox

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 0.5% (1994 est.)

Birth rate: 13.84 births/1000 population (1994 est.)

Death rate: 12.61 deaths/1000 population (1994 est.)

Net migration rate: 3.74 migrant(s)/1000 population (1994 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: air and water pollution because of a lack of waste conversion equipment; Gulf of Riga and Daugava River heavily polluted; contamination of soil and groundwater with chemicals and petroleum products at military bases

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 21.5 deaths/1000 live births (1994 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 69.44 years
Male: 64.37 years
Female: 74.75 years (1994 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.98 children born/woman (1994 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 9-49 can read and write (1970)
Total population: 100%
Male: 100%
Female: 100%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Latvia - Government 1994
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Latvia
Conventional short form:
local long form: Latvijas Republika
local short form; Latvija

Former: Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic

Government type: republic

Capital: Riga

Administrative divisions: 26 counties (singular - rajons) and 7 municipalities*:Aizkraukles Rajons, Aluksnes Rajons, Balvu Rajons, Bauskas Rajons, Cesu Rajons, Daugavpils*, Daugavpils Rajons, Dobeles Rajons, Gulbenes Rajons, Jekabpils Rajons, Jelgava*, Jelgavas Rajons, Jurmala*, Kraslavas Rajons, Kuldigas Rajons, Leipaja*, Liepajas Rajons, Limbazu Rajons, Ludzas Rajons, Madonas Rajons, Ogres Rajons, Preiju Rajons, Rezekne*, Rezeknes Rajons, Riga*, Rigas Rajons, Saldus Rajons, Talsu Rajons, Tukuma Rajons, Valkas Rajons, Valmieras Rajons, Ventspils*, Ventspils Rajons

Dependent areas

Independence: 6 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 18 November (1918)

Constitution: newly elected Parliament in 1993 restored the 1933 constitution

Legal system: based on civil law system

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Guntis ULMANIS (since 7 July 1993); Saeima elected President ULMANIS in the third round of balloting on 7 July 1993
Head of government: Prime Minister Valdis BIRKAVS (since 20 July 1993)

Legislative branch: Ground Forces, Navy, Air Force, Security Forces (internal and border troops), Border Guard, Home Guard (Zemessardze)
Parliament Saeima: elections last held 5-6 June 1993 (next to be held NA June 1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (100 total) LC 36, LNNK 15, Concord for Latvia 13, LZS 12, Equal Rights 7, LKDS 6, TUB 6, DCP 5

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE (guest), CSCE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, LORCS, NACC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Ints M, SILINS
From the us chancery: 4,325 17th Street NW, Washington, DC 20,011
From the us telephone: 46-9-882-0046
From the us embassy: Raina Boulevard 7, Riga 226,050
From the us mailing address: use embassy street address
From the us FAX: 46-9-882-0047

Flag descriptionflag of Latvia: two horizontal bands of maroon (top and bottom), white (middle, narrower than other two bands)

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Latvia - Economy 1994
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Economy overview: Latvia is rapidly becoming a dynamic market economy, rivaled only by Estonia among the former Soviet states in the speed of its transformation. The transition has been painful with GDP falling over 45% in 1992-93, according to official statistics, and industrial production experiencing even steeper declines. Nevertheless, the government's tough monetary policies and reform program, which foster the development of the private sector and market mechanisms, have kept inflation low, created a dynamic private sector - much of which is not captured in official statistics - and expanded trade ties with the West. Much of agriculture is already privatized and the government plans to step up the pace of privatization of state enterprises. The economy is now poised for recovery and will benefit from the country's strategic location on the Baltic Sea, its well-educated population, and its diverse - albeit largely obsolete - industrial structure.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: -5% (1993 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: employs 16% of labor force; principally dairy farming and livestock feeding; products - meat, milk, eggs, grain, sugar beets, potatoes, vegetables; fishing and fish packing

Industries: employs 41% of labor force; highly diversified; dependent on imports for energy, raw materials, and intermediate products; produces buses, vans, street and railroad cars, synthetic fibers, agricultural machinery, fertilizers, washing machines, radios, electronics, pharmaceuticals, processed foods, textiles

Industrial production growth rate: -38% (1992 est.)

Labor force: 1.407 million
By occupation industry and construction: 41%
By occupation agriculture and forestry: 16%
By occupation other: 43% (1990)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 5.6% (December 1993)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues:$NA

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $429 million from non-FSU countries (f.o.b., 1992)
Commodities: oil products, timber, ferrous metals, dairy products, furniture, textiles
Partners: Russia, other CIS countries, Western Europe

Imports: $NA
Commodities: fuels, cars, ferrous metals, chemicals
Partners: Russia, other CIS countries, Western Europe

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $NA

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: lats per US$1 - 0.5917 (January 1994), 1.32 (March 1993)

Latvia - Energy 1994
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 5.8 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 2,125 kWh (1992)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Latvia - Communication 1994
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Latvia - Military 1994
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: 176 million rubles, 3%-5% of GDP; note - conversion of the military budget into US dollars using the prevailing exchange rate could produce misleading results

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Latvia - Transportation 1994
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 50
Usable: 15
With permanentsurface runways: 11
With runways over 3659 m: 0
With runways 2440-3659 m: 7
With runways 10602439 m: 7
Note: a C-130 can land on a 1,060-m airstrip

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: crude oil 750 km; refined products 780 km; natural gas 560 km (1992)



Waterways: 300 km perennially navigable

Merchant marine: 93 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 850,840 GRT/1,107,403 DWT, cargo 15, container 2, oil tanker 41, refrigerated cargo 27, roll-on/roll-off cargo 8

Ports and terminals

Latvia - Transnational issues 1994
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Disputes international: the Abrene section of border ceded by the Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic to Russia in 1944

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for illicit drugs from Central and Southwest Asia and Latin America to Western Europe; limited producer of illicit opium; mostly for domestic consumption; also produces illicit amphetamines for export


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