Statistical information Libya 1994Libya

Map of Libya | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Libya in the World
Libya in the World

Sightseeing Pass

Libya - Introduction 1994
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Background: Since he took power in a 1969 military coup Col. Muammar Abu Minyar al-QADHAFI has espoused his own political system - a combination of socialism and Islam - which he calls the Third International Theory. Viewing himself as a revolutionary leader he used oil funds during the 1970s and 1980s to promote his ideology outside Libya even supporting subversives and terrorists abroad to hasten the end of Marxism and capitalism. Libyan military adventures failed e.g. the prolonged foray of Libyan troops into the Aozou Strip in northern Chad was finally repulsed in 1987. Libyan support for terrorism decreased after UN sanctions were imposed in 1992.

Libya - Geography 1994
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Location: Northern Africa, on the southern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt and Tunisia

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceAfrica, Standard Time Zones of the World

Total area total: 1,759,540 km²
Land: 1,759,540 km²

Land boundaries: total 4,383 km, Algeria 982 km, Chad 1,055 km, Egypt 1,150 km, Niger 354 km, Sudan 383 km, Tunisia 459 km

Coastline: 1,770 km

Maritime claims
Territorial sea: 12 nm
Gulf of Sidra closing line: 32 degrees 30 minutes north

Climate: Mediterranean along coast; dry, extreme desert interior

Terrain: mostly barren, flat to undulating plains, plateaus, depressions


Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, gypsum
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 2%
Permanent crops: 0%
Meadows and pastures: 8%
Forest and woodland: 0%
Other: 90%

Irrigated land: 2,420 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: hot, dry, dust-laden ghibli is a southern wind lasting one to four days in spring and fall


Libya - People 1994
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Population: 5,057,392 (July 1994 est.)
Growth rate: 3.72% (1994 est.)

Nationality: noun:Libyan(s)

Ethnic groups: Berber and Arab 97%, Greeks, Maltese, Italians, Egyptians, Pakistanis, Turks, Indians, Tunisians

Languages: Arabic, Italian, English, all are widely understood in the major cities

Religions: Sunni Muslim 97%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 3.72% (1994 est.)

Birth rate: 45.29 births/1000 population (1994 est.)

Death rate: 8.14 deaths/1000 population (1994 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1994 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: desertification; sparse natural surface-water resources; the Great Manmade River Project, the largest water development scheme in the world, is being built to bring water from large aquifers under the Sahara to coastal cities

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 63.4 deaths/1000 live births (1994 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 63.88 years
Male: 61.73 years
Female: 66.13 years (1994 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.38 children born/woman (1994 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Total population: 64%
Male: 75%
Female: 50%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Libya - Government 1994
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Country name
Conventional long form: Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
Conventional short form:
local long form: Al Jumahiriyah al Arabiyah al Libiyah ash Shabiyah al Ishirakiyah
local short form; none

Government type: Jamahiriya (a state of the masses) in theory, governed by the populace through local councils; in fact, a military dictatorship

Capital: Tripoli

Administrative divisions: 25 municipalities (baladiyah, singular - baladiyat; Ajdabiya, Al 'Aziziyah, Al Fatih, Al Jabal al Akhdar, Al Jufrah, Al Khums, Al Kufrah, An Nuqat al Khams, Ash Shati', Awbari, Az Zawiyah, Banghazi, Darnah, Ghadamis, Gharyan, Misratah, Murzuq, Sabha, Sawfajjin, Surt, Tarabulus, Tarhunah, Tubruq, Yafran, Zlitan

Dependent areas

Independence: 24 December 1951 (from Italy)

National holiday: Revolution Day, 1 September (1969)

Constitution: 11 December 1969, amended 2 March 1977

Legal system: based on Italian civil law system and Islamic law; separate religious courts; no constitutional provision for judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch
Chief of state: Revolutionary Leader Col. Mu'ammar Abu Minyar al-QADHAFI (since 1 September 1969)
Head of government: Chairman of the General People's Committee (Premier) Abd al Majid al-Qa'ud (since 29 January 1994)

Legislative branch: Armed Peoples of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriyah (including Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Command)
General People's Congress: national elections are indirect through a hierarchy of peoples' committees

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders


Diplomatic representation
From the us:

Flag descriptionflag of Libya: plain green; green is the traditional color of Islam (the state religion)

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Libya - Economy 1994
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Economy overview: The socialist-oriented economy depends primarily upon revenues from the oil sector, which contributes practically all export earnings and about one-third of GDP. In 1990 per capita GDP was the highest in Africa at $5,410, but GDP growth rates have slowed and fluctuate sharply in response to changes in the world oil market. Import restrictions and inefficient resource allocations have led to shortages of basic goods and foodstuffs. Windfall revenues from the hike in world oil prices in late 1990 improved the foreign payments position and resulted in a current account surplus through 1992. The nonoil manufacturing and construction sectors, which account for about 20% of GDP, have expanded from processing mostly agricultural products to include petrochemicals, iron, steel, and aluminum. Although agriculture accounts for only 5% of GDP, it employs about 20% of the labor force. Climatic conditions and poor soils severely limit farm output, and Libya imports about 75% of its food requirements. The UN sanctions imposed in April 1992 have not yet had a major impact on the economy because Libya's oil revenues generate sufficient foreign exchange that, along with Libya's large currency reserves, sustain food and consumer goods imports as well as equipment for the oil industry and ongoing development projects.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 1% (1993 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: 5% of GNP; cash crops - wheat, barley, olives, dates, citrus fruits, peanuts; 75% of food is imported

Industries: petroleum, food processing, textiles, handicrafts, cement

Industrial production growth rate: 10.5% (1990)

Labor force: 1 million (includes about 280,000 resident foreigners)
By occupation industry: 31%
By occupation services: 27%
By occupation government: 24%
By occupation agriculture: 18%
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA%

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues:$8.1 billion

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $7.7 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
Commodities: crude oil, refined petroleum products, natural gas
Partners: Italy, Germany, Spain, France, UK, Turkey, Greece, Egypt

Imports: $8.26 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
Commodities: machinery, transport equipment, food, manufactured goods
Partners: Italy, Germany, UK, France, Spain, Turkey, Tunisia, Eastern Europe

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $3.5 billion excluding military debt (1991 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Libyan dinars (LD) per US$1 - 0.3233 (January 1994), 0.3250 (1993), 0.3013 (1992), 0.2684 (1991), 0.2699 (1990), 0.2922 (1989)

Libya - Energy 1994
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 14.385 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 2,952 kWh (1992)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Libya - Communication 1994
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Libya - Military 1994
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: exchange rate conversion - $3.3 billion, 15% of GDP (1989 est.)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Libya - Transportation 1994
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 145
Usable: 132
With permanentsurface runways: 57
With runways over 3659 m: 8
With runways 2440-3659 m: 28
With runways 1220-2439 m: 52

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: crude oil 4,383 km; petroleum products 443 km (includes liquified petroleum gas 256 km; natural gas 1,947 km



Waterways: none

Merchant marine: 31 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 690,703 GRT/1,211,184 DWT, cargo 10, chemical tanker 1, liquefied gas 2, oil tanker 10, roll-on/roll-off cargo 4, short-sea passenger 4

Ports and terminals

Libya - Transnational issues 1994
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Disputes international: the International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruled in February 1994 that the 100,000 km² Aozou Strip between Chad and Libya belongs to Chad, and that Libya must withdraw from it by 31 May 1994; Libya had withdrawn its forces in response to the ICJ ruling, but as of June 1994 still maintained an airfield in the disputed area; maritime boundary dispute with Tunisia; claims part of northern Niger and part of southeastern Algeria

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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