Statistical information Malaysia 1994Malaysia

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Malaysia in the World
Malaysia in the World

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Malaysia - Introduction 1994
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Background: Malaysia was created in 1963 through the merging of Malaya (independent in 1957) and the former British Singapore both of which formed West Malaysia and Sabah and Sarawak in north Borneo which composed East Malaysia. The first three years of independence were marred by hostilities with Indonesia. Singapore seceded from the union in 1965.


Malaysia - Geography 1994
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Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea, between Vietnam and Indonesia

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceAsia, Oceania, Southeast Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World

Area
Total area total: 329,750 km²
Land: 328,550 km²

Land boundaries: total 2,669 km, Brunei 381 km, Indonesia 1,782 km, Thailand 506 km

Coastline: 4,675 km (Peninsular Malaysia 2,068 km, East Malaysia 2,607 km)

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: 200-m depth or to depth of exploitation; specified boundary in the South China Sea
Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; annual southwest (April to October) and northeast (October to February) monsoons

Terrain: coastal plains rising to hills and mountains

Elevation

Natural resources: tin, petroleum, timber, copper, iron ore, natural gas, bauxite
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 3%
Permanent crops: 10%
Meadows and pastures: 0%
Forest and woodland: 63%
Other: 24%

Irrigated land: 3,420 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: subject to flooding

Geography
Note: strategic location along Strait of Malacca and southern South China Sea


Malaysia - People 1994
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Population: 19,283,157 (July 1994 est.)
Growth rate: 2.28% (1994 est.)

Nationality: noun:Malaysian(s)

Ethnic groups: Malay and other indigenous 59%, Chinese 32%, Indian 9%

Languages
Peninsular Malaysia: Malay (official), English, Chinese dialects, Tamil
Sabah: English, Malay, numerous tribal dialects, Chinese (Mandarin and Hakka dialects predominate)
Sarawak: English, Malay, Mandarin, numerous tribal languages *** No data for this item ***

Religions
Peninsular Malaysia: Muslim (Malays), Buddhist (Chinese), Hindu (Indians)
Sabah: Muslim 38%, Christian 17%, other 45%
Sarawak: tribal religion 35%, Buddhist and Confucianist 24%, Muslim 20%, Christian 16%, other 5%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 2.28% (1994 est.)

Birth rate: 28.45 births/1000 population (1994 est.)

Death rate: 5.67 deaths/1000 population (1994 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1994 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: air and water pollution; deforestation

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 25.6 deaths/1000 live births (1994 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 69.15 years
Male: 66.26 years
Female: 72.18 years (1994 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.51 children born/woman (1994 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Total population: 78%
Male: 86%
Female: 70%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Malaysia - Government 1994
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Country name
Conventional long form: none
Conventional short form: former:Malayan Union

Government type: constitutional monarchy
Note: Federation of Malaysia formed 9 July 1963; nominally headed by the paramount ruler (king) and a bicameral Parliament; Peninsular Malaysian states - hereditary rulers in all but Melaka, where governors are appointed by Malaysian Pulau Pinang Government; powers of state governments are limited by federal Constitution; Sabah - self-governing state, holds 20 seats in House of Representatives, with foreign affairs, defense, internal security, and other powers delegated to federal government; Sarawak - self-governing state, holds 27 seats in House of Representatives, with foreign affairs, defense, internal security, and other powers delegated to federal government

Capital: Kuala Lumpur

Administrative divisions: 13 states (negeri-negeri, singular - negeri) and 2 federal territories* (wilayah-wilayah persekutuan, singular - wilayah persekutuan; Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Labuan*, Melaka, Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, Perak, Perlis, Pulau Pinang, Sabah, Sarawak, Selangor, Terengganu, Wilayah Persekutuan*

Dependent areas

Independence: 31 August 1957 (from UK)

National holiday: National Day, 31 August (1957)

Constitution: 31 August 1957, amended 16 September 1963

Legal system: based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court at request of supreme head of the federation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: Paramount Ruler JA'AFAR ibni Abdul Rahman (since 26 April 1994); Deputy Paramount Ruler SALAHUDDIN ibni Hisammuddin Alam Shah (since 26 April 1994)
Head of government: Prime Minister Dr. MAHATHIR bin Mohamad (since 16 July 1981); Deputy Prime Minister ANWAR bin Ibrahim (since 1 December 1993)

Legislative branch: Malaysian Army, Royal Malaysian Navy, Royal Malaysian Air Force, Royal Malaysian Police Force, Marine Police, Sarawak Border Scouts
Senate Dewan Negara: consists of a 58-member body, 32 appointed by the paramount ruler and 16 elected by the state legislatures
House of Representatives Dewan Rakyat: elections last held 21 October 1990 (next to be held by August 1995); results - National Front 52%, other 48%; seats - (180 total) National Front 127, DAP 20, PAS 7, independents 4, other 22; note - within the National Front, UMNO got 71 seats and MCA 18 seats

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-15, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MINURSO, NAM, OIC, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNOMOZ, UNOSOM, UNTAC, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador John S. WOLF
From the us chancery: 2,401 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,008
From the us telephone: [60] (3) 248-9,011
From the us fax: (202) 483-7,661
From the us consulates general: Los Angeles and New York
From the us embassy: 376 Jalan Tun Razak, 50,400 Kuala Lumpur
From the us mailing address: P. O. Box No. 10,035, 50,700 Kuala Lumpur; APO AP 96,535-5,000
From the us FAX: [60] (3) 242-2,207

Flag descriptionflag of Malaysia: fourteen equal horizontal stripes of red (top) alternating with white (bottom; there is a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing a yellow crescent and a yellow fourteen-pointed star; the crescent and the star are traditional symbols of Islam; the design was based on the flag of the US

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Malaysia - Economy 1994
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Economy overview: The Malaysian economy, a mixture of private enterprise and a soundly managed public sector, has posted a remarkable record of 8%-9% average growth in 1987-93. This growth has resulted in a substantial reduction in poverty and a marked rise in real wages. Despite sluggish growth in the major world economies in 1992-93, demand for Malaysian goods remained strong, and foreign investors continued to commit large sums in the economy. The government is aware of the inflationary potential of this rapid development and is closely monitoring fiscal and monetary policies.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 8% (1993 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 17% of GDP
Peninsular Malaysia: natural rubber, palm oil, rice
Sabah: mainly subsistence, but also rubber, timber, coconut, rice
Sarawak: rubber, timber, pepper; deficit of rice in all areas

Industries
Peninsular Malaysia: rubber and oil palm processing and manufacturing, light manufacturing industry, electronics, tin mining and smelting, logging and processing timber
Sabah: logging, petroleum production
Sarawak: agriculture processing, petroleum production and refining, logging

Industrial production growth rate: 13% (1992; accounts for 43% of GDP

Labor force: 7.258 million (1991 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 3% (1993)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues:$19.6 billion

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $46.8 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
Commodities: electronic equipment, petroleum and petroleum products, palm oil, wood and wood products, rubber, textiles
Partners: Singapore 23%, US 15%, Japan 13%, UK 4%, Germany 4%, Thailand 4% (1991)

Imports: $40.4 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
Commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, food, petroleum products
Partners: Japan 26%, Singapore 21%, US 16%, Taiwan 6%, Germany 4%, UK 3%, Australia 3% (1991)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $18.4 billion (1993 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: ringgits (M$) per US$1 - 2.7123 (January 1994), 2.5741 (1993), 2.5474 (1992), 2.7501 (1991), 1.7048 (1990), 2.7088 (1989)


Malaysia - Energy 1994
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 30 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 1,610 kWh (1992)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Malaysia - Communication 1994
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Malaysia - Military 1994
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: exchange rate conversion - $2.2 billion, 3% of GDP (1994 est.)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Malaysia - Transportation 1994
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 113
Usable: 104
With permanentsurface runways: 33
With runways over 3659 m: 1
With runways 2440-3659 m: 7
With runways 1220-2439 m: 18

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: crude oil 1,307 km; natural gas 379 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways
Peninsular Malaysia: 3,209 km
Sabah: 1,569 km
Sarawak: 2,518 km

Merchant marine: 183 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,935,210 GRT/2,913,808 DWT, bulk 29, cargo 69, chemical tanker 6, container 26, liquefied gas 6, livestock carrier 1, oil tanker 39, passenger-cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 2, short-sea passenger 2, vehicle carrier 2

Ports and terminals


Malaysia - Transnational issues 1994
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Disputes international: involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with China, Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam, and possibly Brunei; State of Sabah claimed by the Philippines; Brunei may wish to purchase the Malaysian salient that divides Brunei into two parts; two islands in dispute with Singapore; two islands in dispute with Indonesia

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: transit point for Golden Triangle heroin going to the US, Western Europe, and the Third World despite severe penalties for drug trafficking


Sesame


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